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How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

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Introduction

´╗┐Ardit Cenalia | Unit 1 How are standard solutions prepared? A standard solution is a solution that the concentration is known accurately. The concentration is normally given has mol/dm3. Then to be able to find a concentration of another substance with in the solution, a standard solution will be used. While making the standard solution itself, it is important that the right mass of the substance is correctly measured. It is also important that all of this is successfully transferred to a volumetric flask; this is so that it will be used to make up the solution accurately. An acid titre is able to be used as a standard solution, after the acid tire concentration has been established, through the use of titrating against the known concentration of the alkali solution. The analysis of a chemical species is able to be accomplished by the use of standard solution. Varying concentration changes in their absorbance of light at particular wavelengths, and therefore the sample solution is compared to various known standard solution and their absorbance at certain wavelengths (this is done by using Beer?s law) can be capable of determining its concentration. Standard solutions are also used within the industry. The solutions which are used in the standard solution will undergo rigorous tests by the manufacturers; this is so that they are able to prove their accuracy, before they are able to be used in the quality assurance of the products. ...read more.

Middle

The processes which are done in the industry could possible take places without the need of the involvement of the laboratory staff. This can also mean that the machines are able to read the results from for the end point really quickly and extremely precise. In the industrial production scale maybe large the laboratory testing and the quality assurance could be possibly on a small scale and could still be done manually although it will be going on at all times and covering many points within the manufacturing process. Some examples of the processes that are related with titration in the industry can include the manual addition of titrant to analyte with the addition of an indicator where the end point will be concluded by eye. For example sugar and salt determinations are normally or commonly performed within the food laboratories, by using a manual colourmetric end point titration, how it can suffer from the production of the colour throughout the reactions, this would mean that masking (hiding) the indicator will/can make the end point hard to see. But yet still, some processes need to checked/monitored continuously, this is so they are able to monitor the progress of the process, whereas titration are necessitated on continuous basis, the instruments that the manufacturers can provide a complete system, this can include an: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

Industrial application of photometric titration Both citric acid and tartaric acid are products of the fermentation process. The acid-base titration, using phenolphthalein indicator, is extensively used for the total acidity determination in wine. Automated titration has significantly changed by employing the flow injection analysis process to handle solutions and detection by spectrophotometry. In addition to the laboratory personnel carrying out small scale testing, each industry will have its own specialised instrumentation to monitor and adjust the processes automatically. Conductivity titration Unlike the photometric titration, conductivity titrations don?t use indicators but electrical charge. This form of titration produces a curved plot of conductance against volume of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). When titrating a strong base with a strong acid, conductance falls considerably at the end-point, which is then used as an indicator measure. Industrial application of conductivity titration This can be used when a strong base and strong acid are been used and where the indicator colour could be masked due to the analyte, titrant or its products. A photometric indication titration relies on the colour change in the range of the indicators. Also the temperature could significantly affect the end point of the titration; this means that the temperature needs to be kept constant. If the temperature is being kept constant it means that the results can be obtained, however this will require monitoring and the control if automatic testing is being undertaken. ...read more.

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