• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How can we control the infection rates of MRSA in hospitals? issue report

Extracts from this document...


How can we control the infection rates of MRSA in hospitals? So what is MRSA? It stands for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; it is a bacterium which has become resistant to antibiotics, it is also known as multidrug resistant. Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium found in certain areas like skin and nose but is usually harmless at these sites. Although can result in infections causing pimples or conjunctivitis in the eye. More serious problems include pneumonia and heart disease. It is usually described as a 'superbug' [1] because the species includes strains of variable virulence-the ability to spread, colonise a host and cause disease. An outbreak of infection occurs when a bacterium, fungus or virus is transmitted to susceptible hosts and causes disease. Outbreaks can be a small scale like family members or even pandemic. These bacteria carry genes encoding penicillinase, an enzyme that breaks down penicillin and prevents it from killing the S. aureus bacteria. They can do this because they have the ability to modify their DNA by mutation or by acquisition of DNA from other bacteria. The ways to prevent the infection spreading usually involve good hygiene, [2] anyone going into a hospital is advised to take sensible precautions. ...read more.


The information provided isn't too old as it was published in 2007. I think the article is very informative and goes into a lot of detail about MRSA. Also, the information I found in this source was backed up by information in other sources, like [3] and [5]. So this helps me decide on the validity of this source and I think it is reliable and valid. These biological methods used to provide a solution are appropriate because they involve hygiene and increasing amounts of bacteria is due to a lack of hygiene. Each of the methods mentioned address the problem differently but all contribute to providing an effective solution to the problem. By keeping good hygiene it will reduce the amounts of infections in the hospitals, so each method which includes cleaning and washing is going to make a very effective solution. They are effective because they target the bacteria directly by attempting to remove them, this would mean less antibiotics would be needed and would slow down the evolution rate of Staphylococcus aureus. So unless we start removing the bacteria the problem will always be a problem, because they will still evolve to resist new antibiotics, so for the solution to be effective it must directly affect the bacteria before they have time to become resistant to new drugs. ...read more.


A few solutions involve the research of new forms of antibiotic. Here is where another question needs to be asked, should pharmaceutical companies in more developed countries be more actively researching? Personally I think they should, they have more resources to their disposal and more workers available to help them. In less developed countries, they are still trying to help people with other less serious issues. So they don't have as much time as a company in a developed country. This will be quite costly though which could cause another economic issue. Other solutions include [3] patient screening upon hospital admission (as mentioned before) with nasal cultures, this would prevent the cohabitation of MRSA carriers with non-carriers and prevent exposure to infected surfaces. Then there's decolonization: After the drainage of boils or other treatment for MRSA, patients can shower at home using chlorhexidine or hexachlorophene antiseptic soap. These solutions are more like precautions and help to prevent the spreading of the infection. So these alternative solutions help to control the infection rates in hospitals and shouldn't be as costly as they don't involve researching new drugs. So overall there are many solutions to the MRSA problem, none of which can completely wipe out these 'superbugs' like MRSA, but they help reduce and control the infection rates in hospitals and communities. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

**** A very good AS report, which clearly outlines the problems associated with hospital infections such as MRSA, outlines how improved hygiene appears to be reducing infection incidence, and explores alternatives to improved hygiene for reducing the issue of antibiotic resistance. To improve:
1)Add relevant biological detail about MRSA as an organism, and include detail of how antibiotic resistance arises and the mechanism of natural selection
2)Consider authors reputation and citations when evaluating primary research references. Consider whether all information sources are referenced on websites like NHS
3)Ensure that the problem the report addresses is outlined clearly, i.e. how MRSA spread can be reduced
4)Consider dividing the report into clear sections with sub-headings

Marked by teacher Kerry jackson 28/02/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Are mobile phones more of nuisance than a benefit?

    living near to mobile phones base stations.-158 Similarly, cell phones have dangerous hazards to reproductive system of humans as well as heart. Researchers have found 30% less sperm count in the mobile users than in the non-users. Alongside, when GSM was first introduced in Australia people felt that their cell phones were affecting their heart pacemakers.

  2. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    * The electrical appliance used in this experiment will the electronic balance make sure you don't place water near the socket for the plug as this can cause the risk of being electrocuted. Make sure your hands are dry when placing or removing the plug from the socket.

  1. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    Also when cutting the root vegetable cylinders they must not contain any dirt on either side as this will affect osmosis. 3) Equipment must be clean before starting the experiment as chemicals left on the apparatus from previous experiments may affect the results which will be obtained.

  2. A2 coursework- The effects of bile salts on digestion of fat

    Also with 2 minute intervals I can compare trends well as I can compare the progress of the reaction. The length of the experiment (30 minutes) was also suitable. When I calculated the % change of pH from 28 minutes to 30 minutes as shown below, the results showed that

  1. Does ethanol causes greater inhibition of pig liver catalase than of yeast catalase

    The pigs liver catalase starts off with almost double the rate of reaction of the yeast catalase but by the end there is only 0.0003 in it. I think at about 0.05mol.dm-3 ethanol concentration the catalase starts to get

  2. Cost effectiveness of mainstream bench cleaners against generic supermarket cleaners on the number of ...

    Salmonella is generally associated with food poisoning and typhoid fever, it is transmitted from under-cooked poultry, eggs and food that has been cooked or frozen and not eaten straight away. The spread can be controlled by proper sanitation of food preparation surfaces.

  1. A Level Biology revision notes

    is linked to obesity * RESTRICT salt and fats o Heart disease is caused by a diet * High in fat - increases cholesterol * High in saturated fats * High in salt - increases BP in hypertension (not in people with normal blood pressure)

  2. Experiment 3 : Identification Of Food Constituents In Milk

    It is less soluble in water than sucrose and is also less sweet. Some people are unable to metabolise lactose and suffer from an allergy as a result. Pre-treatment of milk with lactase enzyme breaks down the lactose and helps overcome this difficulty.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work