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How do we make Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid react faster?

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation Speeding Up Reactions Ehtasham Junaid 11GD1 Fitzalan high school Tutor: Mr Dennis Chemistry Investigation - How do we make Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid react faster? Planning: Aim: This experiment is to find out how to increase the rate of reaction with magnesium (Mg) and hydrochloric acid (HCL) The word equation for the reaction is: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Symbol equation: Mg(s) + 2HCL(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2(g) There are four possible ways to change the rate of the reaction: * Change the temperature of the Hydrochloric acid * Change the surface area * Add a catalyst. * Change the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid Changing the temperature: If I undertake the experiment and change the temperature throughout, I will come across problems: It will be difficult to keep the temperature constant for the entire experiment. It will be very difficult to decrease the temperature below that of 'room temperature'. Hydrochloric acid can get dangerous at a high temperature. Changing the surface area of magnesium: Breaking down the magnesium ribbon will hardly have an effect on the reaction with Hydrochloric acid because the thickness if the magnesium ribbon is too thin and will not create much extra surface area Adding a Catalyst: A Catalyst is hard to find and will require much research into its working. Also a catalyst will only speed the reaction. Changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid: This particular variable is the safest, easier to perform in school labs and is good to obtain decent results. ...read more.

Middle

8. Get a piece of 11.5cm magnesium ribbon in one hand and a rubber bun to seal the conical flask to stop the gas escaping in another hand. Get another member of the group to standby with a stopwatch 9. Drop in the magnesium ribbon and shout for the stopwatch to be started the moment the magnesium hits the acid. At the same time, quickly seal the conical flask with the rubber bun, allowing minimum hydrogen from escaping. 10. The magnesium and the acid should be reacting. 11. Take a reading off the gas syringe every 15 seconds until the reaction stops between the acid and the magnesium ribbon. The reading should be put in the results table. 12. Repeat the whole experiment three times in total. 13. Repeat stages 9-10 three times with acid of 1.5 M 14. Repeat stages 9-10 three times with acid of 1 M 15. Repeat stages 9-10 three times with acid of 0.5 M 16. Make sure that all of the results table is filled in and the average of the results are worked out. Safely clear up all the apparatus Safety aspects to consider: * Always wear safety goggles when handling acids. * Get more people to help set up the apparatus to avoid breakage of gas syringe, etc. Observation: Volume of hydrogen (cm3) Concentration: 2 M 1.5M 1M 0.5M 1 2 3 A 1 2 3 A 1 2 3 A 1 2 3 A Time (sec) (Cm3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 92 92 93 ...read more.

Conclusion

To overcome this problem, I would fold the magnesium ribbon before dropping it in the conical flask. The following diagram shows the situation. I would suggest improvements to this experiment by: * The repetition amount could be increased. This would improve the reliability of results. * Undertaking the entire experiment in a water bath, ensuring that the temperature would not fluctuate. * Widen the range of concentrations, so that there is a wider base of results to analyse. * Cut the need for human involvement by using electronic measuring devices. This would eliminate much sign of 'human error'. My prediction came out correct, that fact that stronger acid increases the rate of reaction. But I was wrong about the results being proportional. I thought that by doubling the concentration we double the molecules of the acid, but this is not true as proven by my results. I would further expand on this experiment on by using zinc instead of magnesium. The same plan would be used but the refinement, which I have realised and identified in my evaluation, would come in circulation. By undertaking this experiment again, but with the new amendments and one major change of metal, I will be increasing the reliability that I can successfully prove my prediction correct. From scientific knowledge I know that I cannot use anything more reactive than Magnesium, because of reaching unsafe levels of safety. Also I could not use anything less reactive than lead. Zinc lies near the middle of that reactivity series, so it was the obvious option. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Coursework Ehtasham Junaid 11GD1 Fitzalan high school Tutor: Mr Dennis ...read more.

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