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How does the viscousity of a liquid change with temperature

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Introduction

How Does the Viscosity of a Liquid Change with Temperature

Theory

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow when acted upon by an external force such as a pressure differential or gravity. Viscosity is a general property of all fluids, which includes both liquids and gases. It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid. A fluid with large viscosity resists motion because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of internal friction. A fluid with low viscosity flows easily because its molecular makeup results in very little friction when it is in motion. The viscosity affects the size of liquid particles, increasing the viscosity tends to increase the size of liquid particles, which then increases their gravitational settling rates.

The viscosity of a liquid changes with temperature, as the temperature increases the viscosity decreases as the intermolecular forces weaken. Energy added to the system in the form of heat increases the kinetic energy of the molecules, with higher kinetic energy, the molecules are able to overcome the intermolecular attraction resulting in a less viscous liquid.

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Middle

Radius of the ball bearing, r,  = 0.284 x 10 -2

Distance travelled, d, = 0.226 m

Density of the ball bearing- image05.png

Density of the liquid- image01.png

        The radius of the ball bearing will be measured using a micrometer screw gage. A stop clock will be used to measure the time so the terminal velocity can be calculated. A balance to two decimal places will be used to measure the mass of the ball bearing so the density can be calculated. A measuring cylinder will be used to find the volume of the liquid so the density of it can be found. A thermometer will be used to find the temperature of the liquid and of the water bath.

 Then a tube will be put onto a tray, glycerine at a temperature of 20 ° C will then be poured into it. Two marks will be made a fixed distance from each other to represent d. A ball bearing will then be dropped down it and the time taken to fall between the two points will be taken.

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Conclusion

Evaluation

        The graphs show that the experiment was reasonably successful, as there are no anomalous results and they are both straight lines. The method worked well, though when timing there would have been some error because a person was timing, if the experiment was to be made more accurate a light gate could be used so the accuracy of timing would be greatly improved and less prone to human error. Also it was not easy to keep the temperature of the water constant and so it decreased in the middle of doing some of the experiment so some accuracy would have been lost there. Another source of error is the acceleration that occurs between the ball being dropped and it hitting the liquid. If the experiment was to be extended, the size of the ball bearing could be varied and the temperature kept constant, this could eliminate the problem of it accelerating before it hit the liquid, to see how it affects the time it takes for the ball to fall down. The diameter of the tube could be varied to and the size of the ball bearing and temperature could be kept constant instead

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