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How effective is tuberculosis (TB) treatment in less economically developed countries?

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Introduction

How affective is tuberculosis (TB) treatment in less economically developed countries How effective is tuberculosis (TB) treatment in less economically developed countries 1.1 Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is caused by several bacteria called ?Tubercle bacillus?. The bacterium were discovered and named as a cause of TB in 1882 by the German Biologist Robert Koch. Tubercle bacillus is a small and extremely dangerous bacterium; it has a long life span and can survive for months in dryness and resist mild disinfectants (Stefan, 2000). TB is a contagious disease which spreads in similar way to common cold and flu viruses; the bacteria are transferred from host to host in small droplets. There are numerous types of TB, of which Pulmonary TB is one. It can be transferred when an infected person sneezes, coughs or spits and an uninfected person comes into contact with the droplets, for example in saliva (Stefan, 2000). Symptoms The symptoms of this disease are severe coughing including bloody mucus, chest pains, shortness in breathe, fever, weight loss and sweating. The secondary infection affects the immune system, bones and gut. The most common scenario when infected with TB is when a person contacts it following another disease or infection which has weakened the immune system. For example when a person has the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ...read more.

Middle

There is a link between poverty and TB. This is because the population there is living in a poor lifestyle or HIV is very common. As discussed above, HIV makes a person vulnerable to TB because it weakens the immune system. Another reason for this economic link could be that hard manual workers, with lower economic status, often live on a diet with fewer nutrients, which also weakens the immune system, leaving a person more vulnerable to TB. Because this is a disease of poverty? there are economic implications; the countries affected have no money to invest in finding treatment and research. The burden then falls on more economically developed countries. However because of the benefits being gained from this; pharmaceuticals companies invest little money into TB research. The reliability of fig 3 on the estimated of the cases varies depending on the sources. Economically developing countries have easy access to medical data, e.g. NHS in UK. However data on less economically developed countries is less reliable due to less health services. 1.2 Different types of antibiotics Isoniazoid is the drug most commonly used to treat TB, and is the most effective. Isoniazoid is bactericidal (capable of killing bacteria and viruses), non-toxic, easy to access and inexpensive. The usual dosage is 3 to 5mg/kg body mass produced in a peak concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

Dr Jerald Sadoff, president and ceo of the areas global tb vaccine foundation, © 2005, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, All Rights Reserved. (1) Murray CJL, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. (2) World Health Report 2001. Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001. (3) Dye C, Scheele S, Dolin P, Pathania V, Raviglione MC. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence and mortality by country. JAMA 2002; 282:677-686. (4) Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N et al. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. (in preparation) 2002. (5) Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning and Financing. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002. (6) Salomon JA, Mathers CD, Murray CJL, Ferguson BD. Methods for life expectancy and healthy life expectancy uncertainty analysis (GPE Discussion Paper No. 10). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001. (7) Mathers CD, Stein C, Tomijima N, Ma Fat D, Rao C, Inoue M, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. (2002). Global Burden of Disease 2000: Version 2 methods and results. Geneva, World Health Organization (GPE Discussion Paper No. 50) Incentives and disincentives for new anti-tuberculosis drug development A situation analysis by D. Chang Blanc and P. Nunn (Stop TB and TDR Publication date: 2000 WHO reference number: TDR/PRD/TB/00.1 ...read more.

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