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How enzyme concentration affects the amount of apple juice production.

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Introduction

How enzyme concentration affects the amount of apple juice production. For this investigation I am going to investigate the effect of the concentration of an enzyme, in this case Pectinase, on the time taken for the enzyme to breakdown the substrate, which in this case is an apple. The reason Pectinase is used is because it breaks down the pectic substances found within, and between, the cell walls. The pectin's are found between the cellulose and hemi cellulose of the cell wall and also in between the cells. It acts as the glue that holds them together. The diagram shows how. I am going to find out how the enzyme affects the speed in which this is done. I am going to do this by planning an experiment, carrying out the experiment, recording any relevant results and plotting graphs from which I will be able, hopefully to gain a strong conclusion. I will finally evaluate the whole investigation. Planning Before the experiments starts we were given a test tube containing a Pectinase. From this we can use as much as we want in a certain test tube. I cannot start he experiment until I know which factors I am going to change and which I am going to keep constant. ...read more.

Middle

Water bath, for the solutions. 5 measuring cylinders, to measure the amount of liquid from the solution. 5 filter papers, to filter the liquid and make sure only te liquid gets through. Stopwatch, to measure accurately the time it the boiling tubes are in the water bath and the time the in the measuring cylinders . 250ml beaker, used for the water. Holds the water which goes into the boiling tubes. Pipette, used to transfer little amounts of solutions especially the water because I want to mix the solutions. To do this I will have to have, depending on the concentration needed a ratio of water. I am wanting to make 2cm cubed of all the above values. E.g. To make a 0.5% concentration ill have to add 1cm cubed of Pectinase. The volumes needed for the concentrations I will use are shown below. Concentration of water Concentration of Pectinase 0 cm cubed 2 cm cubed 0.5 cm cubed 1.5 cm cubed 1 cm cubed 1 cm cubed 1.5 cm cubed 0.5 cm cubed 2 cm cubed 0 cm cubed These will be made by using the syringes to collect the Pectinase and water. Different syringes for different substances is important so the concentrations are accurate. ...read more.

Conclusion

It's clear that some of my points on my graph do not fit, these are anomalies. Although they have only slight inaccuracies, they are an indicator of possible errors in the investigation. These may have occurred in either the measurement of the quantities of the enzyme and substrate or the measurement of the time taken while the enzyme was in the water bath or the measuring cylinder. There are many reason why it may have happened which in a next investigation a could try harder to put right. My results are not that good and if I were to do this, again I would definitely change the amount of results I had taken so that I may get more accurate results the second time around. Suggestions for improvement � In this investigation each reading was repeated so that an average rate of reaction for each enzyme concentration could be calculated. This could be improved by repeating the reading more frequently thus reducing the extent of any anomalies further, once averaged. � I would take more results to make sure they are more accurate � The number of enzyme concentrations I could use were limited because of equipment, I would have liked to be able to have had more than 5. � I would have also have liked to have used different types apple e.g mashed and sliced to show the difference on a graph ...read more.

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