• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How organelles work together

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Diana Nobis 15.1 Identification of organisms 11/02/13 Task 4 How organelles work together to produce a product Organelles usually work together to produce proteins to be exported out of the cell or to become part of it. The genes give instructions to the cell on how to make the proteins. First, the nucleus makes messenger RNA from the instructions by DNA. The messenger RNA then travels out of the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm and then it gets translated into amino acid sequences by ribosomes which are found on the rough ER. The rough ER has two functions which are to make membranes and to change proteins. ...read more.


The vesicle then comes off from the rough ER and travels to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus stores molecules and finishes the molecules. It picks up vesicles from the rough ER and then sends the finished product to the cell membrane to be sent out of the cell or to become a part of the cell?s organelles. When the Golgi apparatus receives a vesicle from the rough ER, it modifies it chemically. Lysosomes break down damaged or old parts of the cell and bacteria. They engulf food particles into food vacuoles before fusing with vacuoles to break down everything so that they can be turned into nutrients and reused. Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane to keep in its acids. ...read more.


These cells produce the antibodies. This is the process used: 1. B cells come from the stem cells in the bone marrow. As they develop and mature, they start to make a single type of antibody. 2. These antibodies are proteins which recognise antigens and that move to the cell surface and stick out. 3. Then the B cell floats in the blood so that when it comes near a specific antigen it is prepared for replication. 4. The B cell receives a signal from a helper T cell which is activated by a macrophage. This helps rapid cell division. 5. The B cells made, differentiates into effector and memory B cells. 6. These effector B cells then make a lot of antibodies. These antibodies will tag an antigen for destruction by phagocytes and complementary proteins. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. cell organelles

    Structure: Eukaryotic flagellum is a bundle of nine fused pairs of micro tubule doublets surrounding two central single microtubules. Function: Its function is usually to propel a unicellular or small multicellular organism by beating with a whip-like motion. Cilium. A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

  2. Describe how the Organelles in the Beta Cells Work Together to Produce and Secrete ...

    It fuses with the bilayer of the cell membrane and the contents of the vesicle is excreted into the blood. This is called exocytosis. The structure of the cell membrane enables the components needed for protein manufacture to be transported into the cell and for proteins/products to be transported out.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work