• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

How temperature affects the viscosity of honey

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Abigail Durling        2068        40643

How Temperature of Honey Affects Viscosity

Introduction

Viscosity is a factor controlling resistance to flow and the speed that liquids flow is down to this. The lower the viscosity, the runnier the fluid is. Viscosity can be easily measured using the line spread test, how far and fast a fixed quantity of liquid spreads across a flat surface. Another way is by using George Gabriel Stokes’ method of a falling ball, this method includes timing a ball falling at a constant rate (its terminal velocity) through a substance, the longer it takes for the ball to fall a measured distance the more viscous the substance.

I am investigating how temperature affects the viscosity of honey, in order to do this I must use the falling ball viscometer method first conducting a preliminary experiment to find a suitable range of temperatures of honey to time a ball falling through.

Archimedes stated:

‘When a body is partially or totally immerse in a fluid, the upthrust is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.’

When terminal velocity has been reached by the ball bearing the forces acting upon it will be balanced and the ball bearing will fall at a constants velocity. The magnitudes of these forces are related:

image05.png

Or:

image06.png

This equation can be rearranged by cancelling common factors of π and r, multiplying by 3 and ten dividing by 2 to give:

image17.png

η can then be made the subject:

image21.png

[Salters Horners Advanced Physics Activity Sheet 5]

As you can see form the equations, the radius of the steel ball bearing is needed in order for the viscosity to be calculated, this can be done by finding the diameter of the ball bearing and then dividing it by two. I used a micrometer screw gauge to measure the diameter of the ball bearing accurately. image22.jpg

[www.

...read more.

Middle

25.2

24.5

25.1

25

16.1

16.7

16.5

16.4

30

12.7

11.8

11.9

12.1

35

9.0

9.3

9.8

9.4

40

4.3

5.0

5.1

4.8

Before the coefficient of friction can be calculated however, the density of both the honey and the steel ball bearing must be found, this had to be done using:

image09.png

Honey

Mass of empty measuring cylinder = 113.80g

Mass or measuring cylinder containing 100cm3 of honey = 256.40g

Mass of honey = 256.40 – 113.80 = 142.6g

image09.png

image25.png

Steel Ball Bearing

Mass of ball bearing = 4.14g

Volume of ball bearing = image07.png = image08.png = 0.523599cm3

image09.png

image10.png

The co-efficient of viscosity, η, which determines the size of the viscous force can now be determined by using the equation:

image11.png

where ρ is density, g is gravity and v is velocity.

image12.png

image13.png

image14.png

image15.png

Temperature (˚C)

Time taken (s)

Average Time (s)

Speed (cms-1)

Coefficient of viscosity, η, (kgcm-1s-1)

10

104.6

103.9

104.1

104.2

0.09596929

0.036766293

15

41.4

45.4

43.2

43.3

0.230769231

0.015289885

20

25.5

25.2

24.5

25.1

0.39893617

0.008844610

25

16.1

16.7

16.5

16.4

0.60851927

0.005798395

30

12.7

11.8

11.9

12.1

0.824175824

0.004281168

35

9.0

9.3

9.8

9.4

1.067615658

0.003304967

40

4.3

5.0

5.1

4.8

2.083333333

0.001693649

Analysis

From my graph I can see that there is a strong link between the temperature and viscosity of ‘Romero’s Honey’. My graph clearly shows that the higher the temperature of the honey the lower its viscosity. This is because the heat energy that has been transferred to the honey from the water baths has been converted into kinetic energy causing the honey particles to move faster meaning the honey can flow quicker and so has a lower viscosity. The molecules of the honey are tightly bound together by intermolecular forces. As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the honey molecules increases meaning they can more freely move lessening the intermolecular forces and hence the viscosity decreases.

I can immediately see that my graph looks very similar to the graph on the left implying that my experiment went well and accurate results were produced.  My graph shows no anomalies and my line is very smooth also showing that the experiment has been carried out to a high degree of accuracy. image16.png

Errors

...read more.

Conclusion

image18.png

Elcometer’s Daniel Flow Gauge – Material is poured into the channel and then the devise turned vertically, the product flowing onto the graduated plate.

image19.png

Brookfield DV-E Low Cost Digital Viscometer.

This viscometer provides a quick and easy determination of apparent viscosity across a broad range of viscosities by using the different sized spindles. For Quality Assurance purposes, the viscosity determination is usually made using a known spindle size at a known spindle speed at a constant temperature e.g. viscosity of sweetened skimmed condensed milk . The viscosity reading can either be cP or mPa-s. For more serious viscosity evaluations readings will be taken going up and then down the speed ranges for the relevant spindle and the results modelled and expressed manually.

For those areas where material flow parameters are critical e.g chocolate-  yield and viscosity, a more comprehensive analytical tool is required. In the chocolate industry the ultimate end use/process type does require a more detailed knowledge of the products flow characteristics. Chocolate used in moulding e.g. Easter Eggs require a different set of flow characteristics to that used for enrobing e.g. Mars Bar. Whereas simple rheometers produce a quick reading of apparent viscosity, the larger research rheometers are able to split out yield and viscosity.  Many of the larger chocolate processors use one the Haake Series 1 Rheometers such as the RotoVisco1 or RheoStress1.

image20.jpg

Haake RheoStress 1 Rheometer

 Rheometers such as the Haake are an invaluable tool in R & D. When developing new chocolate formulations, process optimization is vital. With chocolate being an expensive raw material, chocolate that is too ‘runny’ will result in moulded products with thin shells and high reject levels. Enrobing chocolate that is too ‘thick’ will result in too much chocolate on the bars/biscuits and therefore excessive give away.  For enrobing products viscosity is vital, whilst for moulding or deposited products having a high yield point is beneficial.  

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern Physics essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Albert Einstein - The father of modern physics

    4 star(s)

    the paper that led to the equation E=mc^2 which is one of the most famous, if not the most famous, equation in human history. This equation is based upon Einstein?s investigations into the ?Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space, together with the Maxwellian expression for the electromagnetic energy of space? (Einstein 1905 [7]).

  2. A2 OCR B (Advancing Physics) - Research and Report: Nuclear Fusion as an Energy ...

    paths that prevent it from coming in contact with the outside wall. The tokomak is the most promising design for a commercial Fusion power station and comes from the Russian word for a torus shaped chamber with magnetic coils. Magnetic confinement works in the way because the particles in the

  1. Free essay

    The development of the modern concept of the atom, the size and nature of ...

    He concluded that the rays were composed of very light, negatively charged particles which were a universal building block of atoms. He called the particles "corpuscles", but later scientists preferred the name electron which had been suggested by George Johnstone in 1894, prior to Thomson's actual discovery.

  2. A2 OCR B Advancing Physics Coursework - Research and Report - The development of ...

    the square of their separation distance r, the following formula was created: 2.3 Prediction vs. observation The universe was to be predicted like clockwork. However Newton was not entirely correct. Laboratories such as the McDonald Observatory in Texas have been gathering data ever since "retro-reflector" packages were placed on the moon in the 1969 Apollo 11 first manned lunar landing.

  1. The Development Quantum Computing.

    What a Quantum computer can do for you In order to continue the advance in computing a new type of technology needed to be exploited. According to quantum physics a subatomic particle can't be said to exist, there are only probabilities of it's existence and position until its definite state and position is discovered, then its probabilities collapse.

  2. Quantum Phenomena Observed During Near Absolute Zero Conditions

    It is regarded as an example of a superfluid, we will talk more about those later. The basic formation of a superfluid involves cooling down a sample such as helium gas (helium IV) just above -217oC or 2.17K to form helium II.

  1. Modern Physics - AQA GCE Physics B - Revision Notes

    - It is often random and persistent. * White noise has an equal opportunity of being any frequency and so has a uniform frequency spectrum. It also has uniform amplitude across the frequency range. * Some things can be done to reduce the effect of noise: * Reducing it at the source * Masking or absorbing the noise.

  2. Physics Course work 'What is the Higgs Boson'

    A wave of clustering passes through the room. It may spread out to all the corners, or it may form a compact bunch which carries the news along a line of workers from the door to some dignitary at the other side of the room. Since the information is carried by clusters of people, and since it was

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work