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How temperature effects the hydrolysis of starch with amylase as it's enzyme.

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Introduction

How temperature effects the hydrolysis of starch with amylase as it's enzyme. Biology AS course work on Enzymes: Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature change on the rate of hydrolysis of starch catalysed by amylase. Hypothesis: Temperature change (positive) will almost certainly have the effect of catalysing the starch which is being catalysed by the amylase solution, meaning it will speed up the entire reaction which is already being catalysed. Enzyme activity will be profusely affected whatever the temperature change is. Science Reasoning For Hypothesis: Proteins have biological catalysts (a substance which speeds up the reaction without becoming part of the product). They are called enzymes which when binding to the reactants of the reaction they're catalysing, cause the amount of activation energy to decrease, causing the reaction's speed to increase. A large activation energy amounts to a slower reaction because the substrate needs to surpass the initial activation energy, so a lower one will result in a faster reaction. An enzyme and a product are left at the end of a chemical reaction with a substrate and reactant. Interactions between enzymes and substrates are noticeably weak, so a large surface area is usually required, this is to increase the chances of reactions. ...read more.

Middle

causes denture of the enzymes - an irreversible damage ( at high C) which will stop them from working properly, if not then altogether. The optimum pH for enzymes is 7 any change to this and damage can also be done to enzymes, the charge will change so the hydrogen and amino acid bonds will disconnect. Method: 1.Switch on the colorimeter to warm up, 2.secondly to carry out serial dilutions to make starch solution with a range of concentrations: I'll take 12 boiling tubes, and in one tube measure 10cm3 of 0.5% starch solution, in test tube two 10 centimetres of the 0.5% starch solution and add 10cm3 water and mix. In tube 3 measure 10cm3 solution from tube 2 and mix with cm3 of water, in tube 4 measure 10cm3 of solution from tube 3 and mix with 10cm3 of water and so one. With tube 12 I'll discard 10cm3 of water, I should then have 10cm3 in each tube. 3.I'll make up twelve colorimeter tubes of dilute iodine. 4.I'll draw up 4cm3 in a 10cm3 to proceed with the enzyme reaction (using a pipette / syringe). ...read more.

Conclusion

Apparatus list: Equipment I'll be using in this experiments as follows: Graduated glass pipette or [secondary choice] syringe possibly: Because in my preliminary experiments the syringes were not accurate enough, which meant it was difficulty to measure the solution properly. Boiling tubes which sufficient enough to carry out experiment properly. Heated water bath: The temperature should stay at a regular level when using the water bath. Thermometers will be put in the boiling tube with the substrates and enzymes. This is a precaution to make sure the water bath is working adequately, the temperature must be regulated. An indention tile to place the starch solution on. A stop-clock will be needed to time the experiment. Colorimeter tubes are tubes that fit inside the colorimeter with some liquid inside them. Colorimeter: A colorimeter measures the light absorbed by a coloured/cloudy solution. This is known as absorbency and is shown in arbitrary units. The colorimeter measures the light that is transmitted through a solution. This is known as transmission and is expressed in a percentage form. A colorimeter works using light rays from a tungsten bulb. A filter is put between the sample and the light source. For this experiment I will be using a red filter, as my solution is blue. This filters out certain colour densities. ...read more.

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