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How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

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Introduction

How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch. Aim: To investigate whether changing the concentration of enzymes makes a difference to the rate of reaction. Planning: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the chemical reactions, which go on inside living things. Enzymes provoke all the process necessary for life. Minerals, vitamins and hormones need enzymes to be present in order to do their work properly.They are very efficient at their job. Enzymes are made inside cells. Once formed, the enzyme may leave the cell and work outside. Substrate Product Enzyme ------------------------------------- The substance which the enzyme acts on is called the SUBSTRATE .The new substances formed as a result of the reaction are the PRODUC. For convenience enzymes are usually given a name similar to that of the substrate but with the ending 'ase'. PRELIMINARY WORK- Before starting my actual experiment for my investigation, I had prepared some preliminary. In this experiment I tried out, with different concentrations of amylase with starch to see how long it would take for the starch to convert into glucose. In order to determine the end point of the reaction, I used iodine solutions; this was my indicator because I knew that when iodine is added to starch it produces a blue/black color. Apparatus used: > Amylase solution > Starch solution > Iodine solution > Spotting tile > Stop watch Method for my preliminary experiment 1. I collected the listed apparatus and safety equipment. 2. I cleaned them to get rid of any other chemicals, as this could affect my experiment. 3. Set up my experiment 4. Put one drop of iodine into each well on a spotting tile 5. Added 1cm³ of amylase to 5cm³ of starch solution in a test tube. 6. I took a drop out of the test-tube and added it to the iodine on the spotting tile, at certain times. ...read more.

Middle

As this investigation is about the concentration of amylase, this is one variable, which I will be changing, and my results table will also be based on this. I will dilute the solution of amylase by adding water to it. You can see in the table below how this will be done to achieve the amount I need. Amylase dilution table: This table will help me vary the percentage of amylase: Amylase (%) Amylase (ml ) Distilled water (ml ) Total volume (ml ) 100 10 0 10 80 8 2 10 60 6 4 10 40 4 6 10 20 2 8 10 10 1 9 10 0 0 0 10 Apparatus for the experiment: The apparatus that I plan to use for my experiment is: > Test tube rack > 30ml amylase solution (5%) > 20ml measuring cylinder > 100ml beaker > 250ml beaker (plastic for water bath) > Glass stirring rod > Iodine solution (normal strength two drops mixed with starch) > 13 test tubes > thermometers > Stop watch > Kettle for Hot/cold water (heated according to temperature wanted) > 60ml starch solution > 5ml syringe for accurate measurements Method: Step 1- Firstly, before starting to use the chemicals, make sure that the area experiment is taking place in is safe. Remove any coats or bags lying around. Wear safety goggles and gloves to protect eyes and skin. Safety is very important when doing experiments like this. Step 2- Set out the apparatus as above Step3- measure out the amylase using a syringe according to the amounts stated in the dilution table, and mix with the appropriate amounts of water also stated in the dilution table. Put the diluted amylase in to a test tube. (Repeat this for all 7 concentrations listed in the dilution table) however fill the 7th test tube with just water (last line of dilution table) ...read more.

Conclusion

as in a syringe a meniscus cannot form as due to the compression of air there is no surface tension to form a dip in the surface of the water as the compressed air is forcing it down. EVEN MORE ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS, READINGS AND OBSERVATIONS- Looking at my results I can see that they were fairly accurate and reliable but to make my results even more reliable and more convincing if I had the facilities I could... -Use an electronic device called a colorimeter, which allows you to rely on an electronically developed assumption of when the solution is clear as this device passes light rays through the test tube and will alert you when a chosen level of light rays have shone through (internet research- searched for 'colorimeter' in google search engine). This would be great to notify us exactly when the iodine has cleared and all the starch has been broken down. - I could have done the experiment at least 4-6 times to group up my results and to find out whether or not similar patterns are found each time. -carry out the experiment on the same day in the same period of time (e.g. morning, mid-day, evening or night time) in the same room under same conditions so the room temperature is the same and therefore cannot interfere with each of the experiments. - Again if I had the facilities I would have carried out the procedure according to my original method and not the revised method. I would do this as I explained earlier in my revised method, to save time and for more accurate readings. - Use shorter intervals between concentrations, as there would be more results to read a conclusion and plot a graph from rather than having a few, makes observations easier and accurate. I could use intervals of 10% of amylase concentration rather than going up in 20% for example... instead of using 20%,40%,60%...etc of amylase I could use 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%,60%...etc. continuing in intervals of 10%. BY HEETEN PINDORIA 10P ...read more.

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