Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch. Aim: To investigate whether changing the concentration of enzymes makes a difference to the rate of reaction. Planning: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the chemical reactions, which go on inside living things. Enzymes provoke all the process necessary for life. Minerals, vitamins and hormones need enzymes to be present in order to do their work properly.They are very efficient at their job. Enzymes are made inside cells. Once formed, the enzyme may leave the cell and work outside. Substrate Product Enzyme ------------------------------------- The substance which the enzyme acts on is called the SUBSTRATE .The new substances formed as a result of the reaction are the PRODUC. For convenience enzymes are usually given a name similar to that of the substrate but with the ending 'ase'. PRELIMINARY WORK- Before starting my actual experiment for my investigation, I had prepared some preliminary. In this experiment I tried out, with different concentrations of amylase with starch to see how long it would take for the starch to convert into glucose. In order to determine the end point of the reaction, I used iodine solutions; this was my indicator because I knew that when iodine is added to starch it produces a blue/black color. Apparatus used: > Amylase solution > Starch solution > Iodine solution > Spotting tile > Stop watch Method for my preliminary experiment 1. I collected the listed apparatus and safety equipment. 2. I cleaned them to get rid of any other chemicals, as this could affect my experiment. 3. Set up my experiment 4. Put one drop of iodine into each well on a spotting tile 5. Added 1cm³ of amylase to 5cm³ of starch solution in a test tube. 6. I took a drop out of the test-tube and added it to the iodine on the spotting tile, at certain times. ...read more.

Middle

As this investigation is about the concentration of amylase, this is one variable, which I will be changing, and my results table will also be based on this. I will dilute the solution of amylase by adding water to it. You can see in the table below how this will be done to achieve the amount I need. Amylase dilution table: This table will help me vary the percentage of amylase: Amylase (%) Amylase (ml ) Distilled water (ml ) Total volume (ml ) 100 10 0 10 80 8 2 10 60 6 4 10 40 4 6 10 20 2 8 10 10 1 9 10 0 0 0 10 Apparatus for the experiment: The apparatus that I plan to use for my experiment is: > Test tube rack > 30ml amylase solution (5%) > 20ml measuring cylinder > 100ml beaker > 250ml beaker (plastic for water bath) > Glass stirring rod > Iodine solution (normal strength two drops mixed with starch) > 13 test tubes > thermometers > Stop watch > Kettle for Hot/cold water (heated according to temperature wanted) > 60ml starch solution > 5ml syringe for accurate measurements Method: Step 1- Firstly, before starting to use the chemicals, make sure that the area experiment is taking place in is safe. Remove any coats or bags lying around. Wear safety goggles and gloves to protect eyes and skin. Safety is very important when doing experiments like this. Step 2- Set out the apparatus as above Step3- measure out the amylase using a syringe according to the amounts stated in the dilution table, and mix with the appropriate amounts of water also stated in the dilution table. Put the diluted amylase in to a test tube. (Repeat this for all 7 concentrations listed in the dilution table) however fill the 7th test tube with just water (last line of dilution table) ...read more.

Conclusion

as in a syringe a meniscus cannot form as due to the compression of air there is no surface tension to form a dip in the surface of the water as the compressed air is forcing it down. EVEN MORE ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS, READINGS AND OBSERVATIONS- Looking at my results I can see that they were fairly accurate and reliable but to make my results even more reliable and more convincing if I had the facilities I could... -Use an electronic device called a colorimeter, which allows you to rely on an electronically developed assumption of when the solution is clear as this device passes light rays through the test tube and will alert you when a chosen level of light rays have shone through (internet research- searched for 'colorimeter' in google search engine). This would be great to notify us exactly when the iodine has cleared and all the starch has been broken down. - I could have done the experiment at least 4-6 times to group up my results and to find out whether or not similar patterns are found each time. -carry out the experiment on the same day in the same period of time (e.g. morning, mid-day, evening or night time) in the same room under same conditions so the room temperature is the same and therefore cannot interfere with each of the experiments. - Again if I had the facilities I would have carried out the procedure according to my original method and not the revised method. I would do this as I explained earlier in my revised method, to save time and for more accurate readings. - Use shorter intervals between concentrations, as there would be more results to read a conclusion and plot a graph from rather than having a few, makes observations easier and accurate. I could use intervals of 10% of amylase concentration rather than going up in 20% for example... instead of using 20%,40%,60%...etc of amylase I could use 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%,60%...etc. continuing in intervals of 10%. BY HEETEN PINDORIA 10P ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    Temperature Temperature affects the rate at which enzymes work. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction as enzyme works faster, therefore affecting the results. I cannot use a water bath because solution is in a cuvette and has to be constantly monitored to see if it has reached the percentage transmission.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    Secondly, once testing for the breakdown of starch, what would be done is the iodine solution would be added into the test tubes, to show how far the starch has been broken down. The results obtained from this, however, are only observations by the human eye.

  1. Catalyse Investigation

    * Rinse the glass rod. * Add 2cm3 of the appropriate pH buffer to the starch solution and shake. * Pour amylase solution into the test tube of starch and shake quickly. * Repeat steps 4 & 5 (for the amylase, starch & pH buffer mixture)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of amylase concentration on the breakdown of starch

    3 star(s)

    This is done so any change in the time taken for the amylase to break down the starch can be said to be because of the concentration which reinforces the aim of the investigation. I will do this by diluting the 1% amylase solution to the desired concentrations.

  1. A Level Biology revision notes

    Vacuum in microscope Absent Present Specimen is - Alive or dead - Stained - Dead (vacuum!) Transmission microscope: Electrons pass through internal structure of specimen Scanning microscope: Beams of electrons are reflected off specimens surface. Allows a three dimensional view Bacteria * Grow best at optimum conditions (human body)

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of milk ...

    Methods of recording results: There are four main possible ways in which the results could be recorded for this experiment. These are: 1) Data Logging 2) pH meters 3) Indicators of pH e.g.: phenolphthalein 4) Universal indicator solution. The advantages and disadvantages four each one will be discussed before the most suitable is decided.

  1. How does pH affect the Denaturation of enzymes Starch and Amylase.

    starch broken down by amylase, so I have something to compare with. The variable that I will have will only be the pH. Every other factor, the volumes, concentrations and temperature, (presuming that the room always stays the same temperature)

  2. Experiment To Investigate The Effect Of Concentration On An Enzyme Based Reaction.

    Catalase catalyses the following reaction: 2H2O2 2H2O+O2 Hydrogen Water + Oxygen Peroxide Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reaction within the cell. It is found in tissues where it speeds up the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.

  • Over 180,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.