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How Zoo's Avoid Inbreeding in a Limited Captive Population

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Introduction

HOW CAN A ZOO WITH A LIMITED CAPTIVE POPULATION AVOID INBREEDING? * Contents. * Introduction. * Implications of Inbreeding in Limited Captive Population. * Solutions on Avoiding Inbreeding. * Ethical Issues How can Zoos with limited Captive Population Avoid Inbreeding Introduction; Animal Inbreeding was a problem in the early 1900's. London Zoo was one of the first and largest zoo's open in the world, Zoo keepers and scientists were ignorant and animals were kept in iron cages and confined spaces. They were not aware of the problem that inbreeding caused to captive populations. By the 1990's studies in plants and animals indicated that 'inbreeding depression' and many other effects were taking place naturally and in captivity. One solution to this was made in 1988 European zoos formed European Community Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), the countries involved were to keep detailed reports on animals which would be shared with other Zoos to keep breeding in the best possible interest of the animals. Implications of Inbreeding with limited Captive Population; Inbreeding is the term used when breeding within the family, close and distant in plants and animals, however, there are consequences of inbreeding, and bares illness and health problems within a population if continued over generations. Over generations more frequently recessive and deleterious traits can occur in a population of the species. Pure Breeds or 'True Breeding' leads to generations becoming Homozygous, leading to all future offspring having the same biological traits. ...read more.

Middle

captive breeding to bolster their numbers, we may soon have too few individuals from which to repopulate disappearing fish populations, leaving us essentially in a fisheries catch-22.." -3 In the same article Fraser et al discusses that without captive breeding helping to keep numbers of species up from the ever growing consumers, it is necessary for captive breeding to be used, however deleterious effects on species go hand in hand. However, Inbreeding in Limited captive populations can bring some benefits. Conversation programs like the GRB can offer the chance of current/future technologies in re-populating animals, sometimes inbreeding in limited captive populations can't be avoided when the populations are so small. For example, there are only around 250 Sumatran tiger's left, due to humans causing deforestation, these animals are being put under conservation programs, Inbreeding in captive populations could be there only chance to maintain the population, Cryopreservation is a method used by zoos and scientists to hold DNA and tissue from animals over a long period of time, like plants, animals can hold materials for new medicines and balancing bio diversity. Solutions on how to avoid Limited Captive Populations Inbreeding; "Managers of Zoos often try to organize a population of animals large enough, so that only 10% of the population becomes inbred over 100 years". -5, This is a tactic used by many Zoos' across the world, Studbook keepers make sure that they pick the best partner as possible for mating and preserving the bio-diversity. ...read more.

Conclusion

visitors, to me this is almost the same as pure breeding to breed desired characteristics in an animal, as well as breeding new animals, they also have to sustain captivity for the other animals in the Zoo's and ones that are becoming more and more endangered each day due to the ever changing conditions. An Economical Issue is that Zoological Societies provide many jobs for people across the world in Researching, Conservation Projects, Supplies and Delivery, Media and Advertisement, Maintenance, Utilities and Construction, Education and Government Monitors and more. Without Zoo's and Societies people educated in the field of zoology and veterinary would be unemployed to struggle to find jobs, the industry is vital in our modern economy and this is why it is important for captive programs to exist and succeed. Conclusion; In conclusion I think the problem of inbreeding is now recognized unlike the early 1900's when it was ignore and little was known about it. Scientists and researchers have found good solutions to help limit and stop inbreeding and they work efficiently in Zoo's across the world, However they are constantly against nature and human interference in other parts of the world. I think that avoiding inbreeding in a limited captive population is workable and should continue. The bio-diversity of organisms is crucial to the environment including humans, one change can have a chain of effects would can lead to a change in the way we live and deter future research and technology. ...read more.

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Response to the question

Overall good essay but should focus more on the question. The introduction is too wordy, but does set out the background of the problem quite well. Could expand on what the candidate is going to examine in the main body ...

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Response to the question

Overall good essay but should focus more on the question. The introduction is too wordy, but does set out the background of the problem quite well. Could expand on what the candidate is going to examine in the main body of the text as this is not really stated. Main body of the text is a good in depth analysis but needs to focus more on the topic and question, although points around the central idea are analysed which is good. The conclusion is average, and should be expanded on and focused more towards the question. Clear response.

Level of analysis

Expands on why inbreeding is not a good idea quite well, but tends to list various factors that can affect a population without explaining what they are or tying them in well to the topic of inbreeding. Explains the concept of inbreeding depression quite well and to a detailed level beyond A level. A lot of in depth analysis of the problems caused by inbreeding, but this should not have been half of the main body of focus for the text as the main focus of the essay is how the zoos can avoid inbreeding. Considers other points that can affect selectively breeding in this way which shows expansion of the ideas around avoiding inbreeding in a limited captive population. The conclusion is not quite adequate as it just summarizes their ideas on avoiding inbreeding in captive small populations, rather than focusing on answering the question as how the zoos can avoid inbreeding in the populations.

Quality of writing

Wrong use of 'effected' should be 'affected.' Punctuation and spelling good. Grammar good apart from in one or two places.


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