• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Genome Project.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT http://www.accessexcellence.org What is the Human Genome Project? Begun formally in 1990, the U.S. Human Genome Project is a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. Project goals are to * identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA, * determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, * store this information in databases, * improve tools for data analysis, * transfer related technologies to the private sector, and * address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. To help achieve these goals, researchers also are studying the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms. These include the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. Why do the Human Genome Project? Most inherited diseases are rare, but taken together, the more than 3,000 disorders known to result from single altered genes rob millions of healthy and productive lives. ...read more.

Middle

For a human being or any organism to develop normally, a specific gene or sets of genes must be switched on in the right place in the body at exactly the right moment in development. Information generated by the Human Genome Project will shed light on how this intimate dance of gene activity is choreographed into the wide variety of organs and tissues that make up a human being. Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project Critics express several concerns about the Human Genome Project (HGP), and most involve the extent of the project or its funding. Original proposals for the project emphasized sequencing the entire human genome. This goal, however, is controversial because of the high cost and because many critics believe that sequencing a huge amount of noncoding DNA should have low priority in a time of limited funds for research. On the other hand, most individuals involved in the project agree that detailed genetic and physical maps would be extremely useful. Therefore, mapping of the genome now is the primary goal, with complete sequencing to follow only if the cost becomes reasonable. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, improved preconceptual analysis of the parents' genotypes can provide couples with a broader range of options for family planning. Some critics of the HGP maintain that social and political mechanisms to regulate the ultimate outcomes are insufficient. Because of the genetic variation between individuals, there never will be one definitive human sequence. The lack of a definitive sequence creates uncertainty about the appropriate definition of "normal," which in turn makes the discussion of public policy issues difficult. Questions about controlling the manipulation of human genetic materials concerns these critics, as does the idea that simply because these scientists are able to do this science, they ought to. These critics point to the development of atomic weapons and argue that the science that led to their development caused far more problems than it resolved. Few religious groups in the United States formally have addressed the specific ethical and public policy issues raised by the HGP, although there is active interdenominational discussion of issues related to human genetics in general. Public policy debates are enriched considerably by input from these various groups. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Human Genome Project

    5 star(s)

    In 1993 the American biochemist Kary Mullis was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for originating this technique. If and when it becomes possible to identify the function of each gene in the genome it will be possible to identify "faulty" genes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    - People with mental illness are poor and/or less intelligent. Many studies show that most mentally ill people have average or above-average intelligence. Mental illness, like physical illness, can affect anyone regardless of intelligence, social class or income level. - Mental illness is caused by a personal weakness.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research Project - Could stems cells provide a cure for diabetes?

    4 star(s)

    During the early stages of reproduction of stem cells, the cells that are reproduced (daughter cells) are the same as the original. In the later stages of cell division, the daughter cells produce a stem cell and another differentiated cell. This is the process in which stem cell transplants undertake.

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    and the British Institute for Brain Injured Children (BIBIC) work with the Government to provide extra funding and support. However, this does not suggest that the correct support is available and there is a need for adequate schooling for children with autism.

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    However, in 1997, a landmark study of DNA extracted from the 1856 fossil produced strong evidence to suggest that this was not the case. The scientists compared the DNA sequence of a region of the fossil mitochondrial genome with the sequence of a comparable region in the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans.

  2. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    A normal stimulant of cell division (epidermal growth factor) and an abnormal one (pp60v-src) thus appear to play on the same keyboard. The implication is that tyrosine phosphorylation by pp60c-src has a part in regulating the growth of normal cells. In Search of a Unified Theory Retroviruses do not seem to be a major cause of human cancer.

  1. patterns of growth and development

    By 7 they learn how to control their emotions and realise that they can keep their own thought private ad hide their feelings. They begin to think in terms of who they are and who they would like to be, making them critical of school work.

  2. Nature Vs Nurture

    There are, however, proponents of the idea that homosexuality is the result of the environment in which children are reared, specifically relating it to the behaviour of parents in rearing their offspring. However, once again the genetic and environmental views are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work