• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Genome Project.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT http://www.accessexcellence.org What is the Human Genome Project? Begun formally in 1990, the U.S. Human Genome Project is a 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. Project goals are to * identify all the approximate 30,000 genes in human DNA, * determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, * store this information in databases, * improve tools for data analysis, * transfer related technologies to the private sector, and * address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. To help achieve these goals, researchers also are studying the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms. These include the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. Why do the Human Genome Project? Most inherited diseases are rare, but taken together, the more than 3,000 disorders known to result from single altered genes rob millions of healthy and productive lives. ...read more.

Middle

For a human being or any organism to develop normally, a specific gene or sets of genes must be switched on in the right place in the body at exactly the right moment in development. Information generated by the Human Genome Project will shed light on how this intimate dance of gene activity is choreographed into the wide variety of organs and tissues that make up a human being. Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project Critics express several concerns about the Human Genome Project (HGP), and most involve the extent of the project or its funding. Original proposals for the project emphasized sequencing the entire human genome. This goal, however, is controversial because of the high cost and because many critics believe that sequencing a huge amount of noncoding DNA should have low priority in a time of limited funds for research. On the other hand, most individuals involved in the project agree that detailed genetic and physical maps would be extremely useful. Therefore, mapping of the genome now is the primary goal, with complete sequencing to follow only if the cost becomes reasonable. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, improved preconceptual analysis of the parents' genotypes can provide couples with a broader range of options for family planning. Some critics of the HGP maintain that social and political mechanisms to regulate the ultimate outcomes are insufficient. Because of the genetic variation between individuals, there never will be one definitive human sequence. The lack of a definitive sequence creates uncertainty about the appropriate definition of "normal," which in turn makes the discussion of public policy issues difficult. Questions about controlling the manipulation of human genetic materials concerns these critics, as does the idea that simply because these scientists are able to do this science, they ought to. These critics point to the development of atomic weapons and argue that the science that led to their development caused far more problems than it resolved. Few religious groups in the United States formally have addressed the specific ethical and public policy issues raised by the HGP, although there is active interdenominational discussion of issues related to human genetics in general. Public policy debates are enriched considerably by input from these various groups. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Human Genome Project

    5 star(s)

    From his studies, Morgan was able to create a rough map showing the relative order of these associated genes on the chromosomes, and in 1933 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work. Human linkage maps are created mainly by following inheritance patterns in large families over many generations.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    only the lives of individuals and families, but also enhancing civil society increasing opportunity for socio-economic development and encouraging global acceptance of human and cultural diversity. (http://issues.tigweb.org/mentalhealth) Myths of mental illness There are many myths about mental illness. Until people learn the truth, they will continue to deny that mental illness exists at all or to avoid the topic entirely.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research Project - Could stems cells provide a cure for diabetes?

    4 star(s)

    Thirst is caused when the patient with diabetes undergoes dehydration. Dehydration is common with people who have diabetes are water is kept in the body cells to make up for the lost blood volume. People then become extremely thirsty; this therefore also contributes to polyuria.

  2. patterns of growth and development

    : Reflex schemas exercised - The simple reflexes that are present from birth are the connection between the baby and its surroundings. Such things as sucking, grasping and looking are types of stimulation. For example when a baby sucks they feel tactile pressure on the roof of the mouth, which stimulates more sucking, which produces more tactile pressure.

  1. Human Genome

    * Development of new technologies Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has already enabled us to use very small fragments of DNA in clinical medicine for various diagnostic purposes. This is also very important in forensic science when only a small sample of tissue or blood may be available for study.

  2. Nature Vs Nurture

    Again this might demonstrate the concept of genetically defined plasticity which are controlled with environmental triggers. A good way of determining the extent of genetic influence on behaviour is through the use of twin studies. In one methodology, monozygotic (identical)

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    And for the parents of those, it's a different case scenario altogether. It could be said that those with Asperger's are lucky, as even with their disorder, they can live a near to normal life with average to above average intelligence.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    strawberry crops more frost-resistant, and a tobacco plant bearing a bacterial gene that protects against herbicides. Work on agricultural applications of genetic engineering proceeds slowly because recombinant organisms must be released outdoors in test fields to find whether they work.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work