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Human Genome Project

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Introduction

Human Genome Project The complete human genome sequence was announced in April 2003, two years ahead of schedule and almost three years after the first working draft was achieved. The sequencing information from the project was made fully and freely available at every stage, but much further work remains to be done to identify the thousands of genes and their functions. The Human Genome Project is a international scientific mutual aid to gain a basic understanding of the whole genetic blueprint of a human being. This genetic information is initiate in each cell of the body, encoded in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The structure of a DNA molecule resembles a ladder formed of sugars and phosphates, and four nucleotide bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). ...read more.

Middle

The successful completion of the genome project now provides a supreme understanding of the basic union of human genes and chromosomes. It promises to update both Therapeutic and Preventive Medicine by providing insights into the basic biochemical processes that underlie many human diseases, and by providing a detailed catalogue of the genetic differences, or DNA sequence variants, between people that affect their risk of disease, and their reaction to environmental factors and medicines. A genome is a complete set of genetic material of an organism. Early estimates of the number of genes encoded by the human genome were around 80,000-100,000. Analysis of the first draft sequence (published in February 2001), however, indicated that the number of genes is rather smaller-about 30,000. ...read more.

Conclusion

Both forms of the sequence remain in the population, and are passed on in subsequent generations. These multiple forms constitute "polymorphisms" at each particular site in the DNA. Polymorphisms involving alteration of just a single nucleotide are thus called "single nucleotide polymorphisms" or "SNPs". Some polymorphisms are of particular importance: those that affect the function or expression of genes, for example, cause functional differences between individuals. A functional sequence difference may alter the risk of a person acquiring a disease, their susceptibility to infection, their ability to metabolized a drug, or their reaction to an environmental factor. As the Human Genome Project extends its focus to catalogue these differences, publicly available DNA sequence information will have ever increasing utility and precision for human biology and medicine. ?? ?? ?? ?? Biology Mrs Bruce By Gladys Azu 12S ...read more.

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