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Human Genome Project. The work on interpretation of genome data is still in its initial stages. It is anticipated that detailed knowledge of the human genome will provide new avenues for advances in medicine and biotechnology as scienctist can identify ge

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Introduction

The Human Genome Project(HGP) Leung Kit Yi(14) Chung Chi Wang(24) Mak Chung Yin(26) 6B Introduction Background The Human Genome Project was launched 1990.It is a worldwode project conducted by an alliance of scientists from USA,Britain,China,France,Germany and Japan. The goals of this Project are to determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,identify all the approximately 30,000 genes in human DNA and this process is called genome annotation, store the information in databases known as Genbank and available to anyone on the Internet, develop and improve tools for DNA data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. The ultimate goal is to determine the nucleotide sequence of all 24 human chromosomes(22 autosomes plus X and Y chromosome). The Project was originally planned to last 15 years.However, due to rapid technological advances and the effort of scientist involved, the first draft of the entire human genome sequence was completed in June 2000, ten years from the start of the project.The expected completion date of the project was adjusted to 2003. However, the complete nucleotide sequence is only the first step in the exploration of the mystery of the genome. ...read more.

Middle

Risk assessment Based on the knowledge of the human genome, scientists can assess possible health damage and risks posed to individuals by exposure to toxic agents such as radiations, mutagenic chemicals and cancer-causing toxins and reduce the likelihood of heritable mutations. This is useful because genetic differences make some individuals more susceptible or resistant to these agents. Further work will be focused on the genetic basis of such differences. Evolution and Human Migration The HGP provides information helps us understand human evolution through germline mutations in lineages and the common features that we share with other forms of life. Comparison between the genomes of humans and other organisms such as mice already has led to similar genes associated with diseases and traits. Further comparative studies will help determine the yet-unknown function of thousands of other genes. The HGP can also help scientists study the migration of different population groups based on female genetic inheritance, mutations on the Y chromosome to trace lineage and migration of males.Scientist can compare breakpoints in the evolution of mutations with ages of populations and historical events as well. DNA Forensics (Identification) Any type of organism can be identified by examination of DNA sequences unique to that species. ...read more.

Conclusion

2. How do we prepare healthcare professionals for the new genetics? 3. How do we prepare the public to make informed choices? 4. How do we as a society balance current scientific limitations and social risk with long-term benefits? Uncertainties associated with gene tests for susceptibilities and complex conditions (e.g., heart disease) linked to multiple genes and gene-environment interactions. 1. Should testing be performed when no treatment is available? 2. Should parents have the right to have their minor children tested for adult-onset diseases? 3. Are genetic tests reliable and interpretable by the medical community? Conceptual and philosophical implications regarding human responsibility, free will vs genetic determinism, and concepts of health and disease. 1. Do people's genes make them behave in a particular way? 2. Can people always control their behavior? 3. What is considered acceptable diversity? 4. Where is the line between medical treatment and enhancement? Health and environmental issues concerning genetically modified foods (GM) and microbes. 1. Are GM foods and other products safe to humans and the environment? 2. How will these technologies affect developing nations' dependence on the West? Commercialization of products including property rights (patents, copyrights, and trade secrets) and accessibility of data and materials. 1. Who owns genes and other pieces of DNA? 2. Will patenting DNA sequences limit their accessibility and development into useful products? Conclusion Sources Book Advanced-level Biology for Hong Kong by Y.K.Ho Book 2 Websites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Project http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml ...read more.

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