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Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

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Introduction

Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes (Planning Section) The aim of this experiment is to show how the rate of reaction of the halogenoalkanes changes in respect to the C-X bond, where the C is the carbon and the X is the halogen. This will occur through a nucleophilic attack. The halogenoalkanes undergo hydrolysis according to the following equation CnHn+1X + OH� --> CnHn+1OH + X� Nucleophilic attacks are a predominant type of chemical attack. It is a type of substitution reaction where a nucleophile breaks the bond between the carbon and in this case the halogen and removes the halogen to get a halide ion. There are 3 main types of nucleophilic reaction; one involves hydrolysis, which is the one being used in this experiment and involves an OH molecule, cyanide ions, which is not being used due to cyanide being extremely dangerous and the final nucleophilic reaction involves ammonia ions. ...read more.

Middle

C-Br will not be as easy to break as C-I because the molecule is not as polar and also has a higher bond enthalpy. C-Cl will therefore be the hardest bond to break because it is the least polar and has the highest bond enthalpy of all the bonds being tested. Equipment The equipment that will be used is the following; * 3x Test tubes * Test tube rack * 250ml beaker * Thermometer * Stop Watch * Ethanol * Halogenoalkanes (C-Cl, C-Br, C-I) * Silver Nitrate Method 1. Set up equipment as shown in diagram 2. Add 1cm� of ethanol to each test tube 3. Add in 2-3 drops of a different halogenoalkane in to each test tube 4. Fill up the beaker with hot water at about 50�C (check with thermometer) 5. Add 5cm� of silver nitrate solution to each test tube and quickly put in the water and start the timer on the stop watch 6. ...read more.

Conclusion

The main sources of error in the procedure of the experiment were in actual adding chemicals to the test tube where drops of the chemicals may have hit the side of the test tube. Other errors within the experiment came from the actual measuring and recording the results. There may have been spillages when transferring the chemicals into the test tubes which would result in a lower amount of halogenoalkanes being reacted. All these errors would have been caused by human error as the equipment used was reliable. To minimise errors and increase reliability I would have to revise the method and improve it to minimise the errors. The changes I would make to the method would be to make what I say more specific so it is very definite about what I am doing. Although this will make the method appear more complex it should only hopefully make the experiment much more efficient and have much less errors. ...read more.

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