• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

Extracts from this document...


Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes (Planning Section) The aim of this experiment is to show how the rate of reaction of the halogenoalkanes changes in respect to the C-X bond, where the C is the carbon and the X is the halogen. This will occur through a nucleophilic attack. The halogenoalkanes undergo hydrolysis according to the following equation CnHn+1X + OH� --> CnHn+1OH + X� Nucleophilic attacks are a predominant type of chemical attack. It is a type of substitution reaction where a nucleophile breaks the bond between the carbon and in this case the halogen and removes the halogen to get a halide ion. There are 3 main types of nucleophilic reaction; one involves hydrolysis, which is the one being used in this experiment and involves an OH molecule, cyanide ions, which is not being used due to cyanide being extremely dangerous and the final nucleophilic reaction involves ammonia ions. ...read more.


C-Br will not be as easy to break as C-I because the molecule is not as polar and also has a higher bond enthalpy. C-Cl will therefore be the hardest bond to break because it is the least polar and has the highest bond enthalpy of all the bonds being tested. Equipment The equipment that will be used is the following; * 3x Test tubes * Test tube rack * 250ml beaker * Thermometer * Stop Watch * Ethanol * Halogenoalkanes (C-Cl, C-Br, C-I) * Silver Nitrate Method 1. Set up equipment as shown in diagram 2. Add 1cm� of ethanol to each test tube 3. Add in 2-3 drops of a different halogenoalkane in to each test tube 4. Fill up the beaker with hot water at about 50�C (check with thermometer) 5. Add 5cm� of silver nitrate solution to each test tube and quickly put in the water and start the timer on the stop watch 6. ...read more.


The main sources of error in the procedure of the experiment were in actual adding chemicals to the test tube where drops of the chemicals may have hit the side of the test tube. Other errors within the experiment came from the actual measuring and recording the results. There may have been spillages when transferring the chemicals into the test tubes which would result in a lower amount of halogenoalkanes being reacted. All these errors would have been caused by human error as the equipment used was reliable. To minimise errors and increase reliability I would have to revise the method and improve it to minimise the errors. The changes I would make to the method would be to make what I say more specific so it is very definite about what I am doing. Although this will make the method appear more complex it should only hopefully make the experiment much more efficient and have much less errors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    Also the fact that there were no anomalous results proves that my experiment went well. Even though the percentage error was so low, there were still other sources of errors in my experiment/procedure. The main source of error is heat loss.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the enthalpy change of combustion for ...

    There is an anomalous result seen on graph one involving Butan-1-ol, (which has four carbon atoms in its chain length.) The value I recorded was -673.36KJ/mol where as the value which the line of best fit suggests is -980KJ/mol. This anomaly could be due to several factors the main one

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Percentage error = 0.05 x 100 = + 0.3067% 16.3000 Total percentage error = 0.0165 + 0.24 + 0.3067 = + 0.5632% By working out the total percentage error, the confidence limit can be calculated. Actual weight of aspirin = 0.2934g Total % error = 0.5632% 0.5632% of 0.2934g = 0.0165 (0.05632 x 0.2934)

  2. Planning Coursework - Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

    Control variable There are several factors that affect the rate of precipitate forming and they are: 1) Concentration of silver nitrate used 2) Concentration of halogenoalkanes used 3) Volume of ethanol used All these factors have to be kept constant in order to prove a fair test and five accurate and reliable results.

  1. Rates of Halogenoalkanes

    Furthermore I predict that this precipitate will be either; silver chloride, silver bromide or silver iodide depending on the halogenoalkane used and that as these precipitates will be formed at different rates, meaning the crosses will disappear at different times.

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    An unstable Co-60 nucleus forms 5927 Co + 10 n � 6027 Co PROTON BOMBARDMENT: I-123 can be produced in particle accelerators. -- Protons are fired at xenon-124 target. Caesium-123 and 2 neutrons are formed -- The Caesium-123 decays through xenon-123 to form iodine-123 via positron emission NOTE: Positrons have

  1. Investigating the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Alcohols.

    If we heat up a known mass of water by so many degrees, we can work out the energy given to the water in the below equation: ?E = mc?? (?E - Energy, m - mass, c - SHC, ??

  2. Compare the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols

    above and set up appropriately as I will show in a diagram. 2) When collecting the calorimeter, place on the electronic balance of accuracy to 2 dp, and make sure it has been set to zero. I will then pour water using a measuring cylinder into the calorimeter until the mass of water reaches 250g.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work