• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes (Planning Section) The aim of this experiment is to show how the rate of reaction of the halogenoalkanes changes in respect to the C-X bond, where the C is the carbon and the X is the halogen. This will occur through a nucleophilic attack. The halogenoalkanes undergo hydrolysis according to the following equation CnHn+1X + OH� --> CnHn+1OH + X� Nucleophilic attacks are a predominant type of chemical attack. It is a type of substitution reaction where a nucleophile breaks the bond between the carbon and in this case the halogen and removes the halogen to get a halide ion. There are 3 main types of nucleophilic reaction; one involves hydrolysis, which is the one being used in this experiment and involves an OH molecule, cyanide ions, which is not being used due to cyanide being extremely dangerous and the final nucleophilic reaction involves ammonia ions. ...read more.

Middle

C-Br will not be as easy to break as C-I because the molecule is not as polar and also has a higher bond enthalpy. C-Cl will therefore be the hardest bond to break because it is the least polar and has the highest bond enthalpy of all the bonds being tested. Equipment The equipment that will be used is the following; * 3x Test tubes * Test tube rack * 250ml beaker * Thermometer * Stop Watch * Ethanol * Halogenoalkanes (C-Cl, C-Br, C-I) * Silver Nitrate Method 1. Set up equipment as shown in diagram 2. Add 1cm� of ethanol to each test tube 3. Add in 2-3 drops of a different halogenoalkane in to each test tube 4. Fill up the beaker with hot water at about 50�C (check with thermometer) 5. Add 5cm� of silver nitrate solution to each test tube and quickly put in the water and start the timer on the stop watch 6. ...read more.

Conclusion

The main sources of error in the procedure of the experiment were in actual adding chemicals to the test tube where drops of the chemicals may have hit the side of the test tube. Other errors within the experiment came from the actual measuring and recording the results. There may have been spillages when transferring the chemicals into the test tubes which would result in a lower amount of halogenoalkanes being reacted. All these errors would have been caused by human error as the equipment used was reliable. To minimise errors and increase reliability I would have to revise the method and improve it to minimise the errors. The changes I would make to the method would be to make what I say more specific so it is very definite about what I am doing. Although this will make the method appear more complex it should only hopefully make the experiment much more efficient and have much less errors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    So this will affect my results for the enthalpy change of combustion because all the fuel was not transferred to the water. There were aspects of my procedure that were used to try and combat these errors to ensure as accurate and reliable results as possible.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the enthalpy change of combustion for ...

    This % error is stated in my plan. My final modified method using the flame calorimeter, which was made of glass, was the most accurate. However an anomalous result can be seen on graph two involving Propanol which has three carbon atoms in its main chain.

  1. Rates of Halogenoalkanes

    This is shown by the following extract from the data website http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/C/enth.html: C-X Bond Enthalpy (kJ mol-1): C-Cl = 397�29 C-Br = 280�21 C-I = 209�21 The enthalpies of the C-X bonds decrease from C-Cl to C-I due to the difference in size of the halogen atoms.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    This is an alkaline hydrolysis known as sponification. It is the reaction of an ester with sodium hydroxide to produce an alcohol and the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid of the ester. The purity of the re-crystallised aspirin was 96.76% compared with the purity of pure aspirin which was 97.56%.

  1. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    TESTING WATER IN SWIMMING POOLS: -- When sodium hypochlorite is added to swimming pools to kill microbes, The hypochlorite ion reacts with water, producing unstable hypochlorous acid(HOCl) and hydroxide ions. -- HOCl is relatively unstable. OCl- + H2O --> HOCl +OH- -- The hydroxide ions present raise the basicity of

  2. Planning Coursework - Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

    To sum up, the measurements going to be taken in this experiment will be the time taken for precipitate to form which blocks out the colour of the black background paper. Note that the unit of the measurements will be in seconds.

  1. Hydrolysing Organic Halogen Compounds. The purpose of this experiment is to find out ...

    Observations A. 1-chlorobutane >30 No observable change B. 1-bromobutane 5 Light Yellow Precipitation C. 1-iodobutane 1 Yellow Precipitation D. Chlorobenzene >30 No observable change E. 3� R-Cl >1 White Precipitation F. 2� R-Cl >30 No observable change #Water is present in all reactions from the AgNO3(aq) which acts as an reactant.

  2. HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS

    volume of silver nitrate solution * Volume of ethanol * Specie of Halogen compound used * Time for precipitate to appear Safety Precautions Hazard Warning Labels Hazard Warning Precaution taken All organic halogen compounds have harmful vapours and can be toxic by absorption through the skin.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work