• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

Extracts from this document...


Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes (Planning Section) The aim of this experiment is to show how the rate of reaction of the halogenoalkanes changes in respect to the C-X bond, where the C is the carbon and the X is the halogen. This will occur through a nucleophilic attack. The halogenoalkanes undergo hydrolysis according to the following equation CnHn+1X + OH� --> CnHn+1OH + X� Nucleophilic attacks are a predominant type of chemical attack. It is a type of substitution reaction where a nucleophile breaks the bond between the carbon and in this case the halogen and removes the halogen to get a halide ion. There are 3 main types of nucleophilic reaction; one involves hydrolysis, which is the one being used in this experiment and involves an OH molecule, cyanide ions, which is not being used due to cyanide being extremely dangerous and the final nucleophilic reaction involves ammonia ions. ...read more.


C-Br will not be as easy to break as C-I because the molecule is not as polar and also has a higher bond enthalpy. C-Cl will therefore be the hardest bond to break because it is the least polar and has the highest bond enthalpy of all the bonds being tested. Equipment The equipment that will be used is the following; * 3x Test tubes * Test tube rack * 250ml beaker * Thermometer * Stop Watch * Ethanol * Halogenoalkanes (C-Cl, C-Br, C-I) * Silver Nitrate Method 1. Set up equipment as shown in diagram 2. Add 1cm� of ethanol to each test tube 3. Add in 2-3 drops of a different halogenoalkane in to each test tube 4. Fill up the beaker with hot water at about 50�C (check with thermometer) 5. Add 5cm� of silver nitrate solution to each test tube and quickly put in the water and start the timer on the stop watch 6. ...read more.


The main sources of error in the procedure of the experiment were in actual adding chemicals to the test tube where drops of the chemicals may have hit the side of the test tube. Other errors within the experiment came from the actual measuring and recording the results. There may have been spillages when transferring the chemicals into the test tubes which would result in a lower amount of halogenoalkanes being reacted. All these errors would have been caused by human error as the equipment used was reliable. To minimise errors and increase reliability I would have to revise the method and improve it to minimise the errors. The changes I would make to the method would be to make what I say more specific so it is very definite about what I am doing. Although this will make the method appear more complex it should only hopefully make the experiment much more efficient and have much less errors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Hydrolysing Organic Halogen Compounds. The purpose of this experiment is to find out ...

    The carbon-chlorine bonding gains extra stability by the (1) partial p bonding character. The delocalizing of electrons through the p bonding system reduces the polarity of the bond. The chlorine atom is less negative causing the group harder to leave as an anion, carbon atom is less positive and becomes much less susceptible to nucleophilic attack.

  2. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    From my table you can see that the enthalpy change of combustion form methanol to ethanol increases by '134.34 Kj mol-1' and from ethanol to propan-1-ol is '158.96 Kj mol-1'. This shows the increase in enthalpy is roughly the same meaning that as the number of carbon atoms increase so does the enthalpy change of combustion.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Actual weight of salicylic acid = 4.0029g Total % error = 1.25125% 1.25125% of 4.0029g = 0.0500 (0.0125125 x 4.0029) 0.0500 + 4.0029 = 4.0529 4.0029 - 0.0500 = 3.9529 So therefore the confidence limit lies between 4.0529 + 3.9529 Forward titration (pure aspirin)

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    An unstable Co-60 nucleus forms 5927 Co + 10 n � 6027 Co PROTON BOMBARDMENT: I-123 can be produced in particle accelerators. -- Protons are fired at xenon-124 target. Caesium-123 and 2 neutrons are formed -- The Caesium-123 decays through xenon-123 to form iodine-123 via positron emission NOTE: Positrons have

  1. Planning Coursework - Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

    To sum up, the measurements going to be taken in this experiment will be the time taken for precipitate to form which blocks out the colour of the black background paper. Note that the unit of the measurements will be in seconds.

  2. Compare the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols

    I will do this for each experiment or repeat. 12) When the burning has finished there will be some soot mixture still on the calorimeter. This is due to lack of complete combustion. I will clean this off using cold water before I use the same calorimeter and burning another alcohol.

  1. Investigating the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Alcohols.

    The pre-test will also give me the opportunity to identify possible errors and problems that could arise and to give me the chance to rectify any of them on any of them. I have decided to follow the practical on Activity DF1.2 (4), titled "Measuring the Enthalpy Change of Combustion of Different Fuels".

  2. I am going to investigate the difference in enthalpy of combustion for a number ...

    + 2H2O(l) 3 C__H 413 1.5O=O 497 2C=O 740 4O__H 463 C__O 369 O__H 436 2062 745.5 1480 1852 2807.5 DH/KJ mol-1 3332 DH/KJ mol-1 -524.5 DH/KJ mol-1 Ethanol C2H5HO(l) + 3O2 (g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) C__C 346 3O=O 497 4C=O 740 6O__H 463 5 C__H 413 C__O 369

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work