• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

I will explain how Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA, stores all of our genetic information and the processes of transcription and translation which expressed genetic information.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biochemical techniques DNA to Protein Introduction On this essay I will explain how Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA, stores all of our genetic information and the processes of transcription and translation which expressed genetic information. DNA is an extremely long slim macromolecule made up of many different deoxyribonucleotide subunits. Each DNA molecule is made up of two very long polymers linked by hydrogen atom and coiled in the shape of a double helix. Each of this two polymers contain many structures called nucleotide. Which broken down in three parts: deoxyribose ( a five carbon sugar) a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. There are four crucial different nitrogenous bases that present in DNA: thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine. These bases are the foundation of the genetic code. Sometime represented as T, C. A. G. this bases always pair up in the same way, adenine forms a bond with Thymine and cytosine bonds with guanine as shown in the below diagram. ...read more.

Middle

The sequence of these nucleotides that determines the sequence of amino acids and the protein that is being assembled by the ribosome.[2] This different from of RNA work together in living organism to synthesis protein, messenger or mRNA is a copy of the information carried by a gene of the DAN and the role of mRNA in the cell is, to move the information contained in DNA to the translation machinery. Transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases play a major role in translation during protein synthesis working as adaptor by recognize a triplet on the mRNA through a region called an anticodon and carry a covalently attached amino acid corresponding to that triplet in the genetic code. Since there are three bases and four possible nucleotides there can be up to 64 (4x4x4) possible tRNA molecules. Ribosomal RNA is the central component of the ribosome. The function of rRNA in protein synthesis is to provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNA during translation by providing peptide activity. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ribosomes are made of a small and large subunit which surrounds the mRNA. In translation messenger RNA ( mRNA) decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code. During this process the use of mRNA sequence is to guide the synthesis a chin of amino acid that form a protein. Translation proceeds in four phases: activation. Initaiation, enlogation and termination. Generally, one of the primary function of RNA is to facilitate the translation of DNA into protein. And also transfer the genetic code need for the creation of protein from the nucleus to the ribosome. This process prevents the DNA from having to leave the nucleus, so it stays safe. Without RNA proteins could never be made. [3] Reference: 1) Advanced Biology for you. Michael Roberts; Michael Reiss, Grace Monger. Untied kingdom. 2000. pages 135- 243 ( protein) 2) Biology of a functional approach. 4th Edition. M B V Roberts. First published 1971 untied Kingdom. Page 361- 370 3) Eighth edition biology. Jonathan B. Losos, Kenneth A.Mason, Susan R. singer. Published by McGraw. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    This could be due to a number of factors, but a likely explanation is the student's perception of the phase of division the cell is in; they have made a subjective decision that may be inaccurate or misrepresentational of the rest of the cell population.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    Before the advent of genetic engineering techniques, it took laborious processing of thousands of units of human blood to obtain enough interferon to treat a few patients. And this interferon was not very pure. With the insertion of the interferon gene into bacteria, large amounts of very pure interferon became available.

  1. Cell Theory - Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.

    * eukaryote DNA needs removal of introns -->mature mRNA * splicing: removal of introns from mRNA 6.3.6 State that reverse transcriptase catalyses the production of DNA from RNA. Reverse transcriptase catalyses the production of DNA from RNA 6.3.7 Explain how reverse transcriptase is used in molecular biology.

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    Some people are heterozygous because they only have one allele for the sickle cell condition. Here the red cells are affected but only some become sickle-shaped, so the effect is not so great. Such individuals are heterozygous for this allele and are called carriers.

  1. Genetics: The code broken?

    when the gene is expressed in the phenotype, this is much less accurate as there could be a long period before the effects of a missing or defective protein are expressed in the phenotype. This is common with many genetic diseases such as Alzheimer's B - Multiple alleles and polygenic

  2. Genetics- Transcription and Translation

    Once the RNA polymerase reaches the terminator, which is a region of the DNA that signals the end of the elongation step. The enzyme (RNA polymerase) unhooks itself from the template DNA strand. This step is the termination step and is the final one for transcription.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work