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identification of an organic unknown

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Introduction

Identification of an Organic Unknown Aim: You are supplied with an unknown compound containing one of the following functional groups: - Alkene - primary alcohol - tertiary alcohol - aldehyde - ketone - carboxylic acid - ester - phenol Outline a sequence of tests to identify the unknown compound. Before carrying out the tests, I will label each test tube A-H so I can distinguish between different samples. Tests I will use: Sodium Metal Test Procedure: - Place 2cm depth of the organic compound in a test tube. - Remove the oil from a small piece of sodium - Add the sodium to a test tube containing the organic compound. - Bubbles of gas are a positive result. Safety�: Sodium is flammable so make sure there are no naked flames near the sodium. ...read more.

Middle

If the compound reacts, bubbles will be seen (carbon dioxide gas). Safety: Wear goggles at all times to prevent any getting into eyes. Ester test - Hydrolyse compound by adding warm sodium hydroxide - Add excess nitric acid and then carry out esterification: Esterification 1: - Place 1cm� of glacial ethanoic acid into a test tube and add 2cm� of unknown compound. - Slowly add 2 to 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. - Warm the mixture in a water bath for 5 minutes. - Allow to cool then pour the contents into a beaker containing 50cm� of sodium carbonate solution. If a sweet - smell, then ester present. Safety: Concentrated sulphuric acid is corrosive, wear gloves and goggles when handling. Glacial ethanoic acid is corrosive and flammable so keep away from naked flames. ...read more.

Conclusion

- Sweet smell is a positive result; this is the ester that has been formed. Tollen's Reagent (ammoniacal silver nitrate) Tollen's reagent acts as a mild oxidising agent so will not oxidise ketones. - put 2cm depth of silver nitrate solution a boiling tube - Add ammonia solution in drops and put boiling tube in a water bath at 60c. Stop adding ammonia solution when precipitate dissolves. - Add three drops of organic compound in tube and if silver mirror on the inside of the tube, this is a positive result. Safety: No naked flames near ethanol as flammable. Silver nitrate is corrosive so wear gloves and goggles. Reaction with iron (III) chloride� - Add 20 drops of iron chloride solution to 5 drops of the compound. If phenol is present then this will give a purple colour. Safety: Gloves and Goggles must be worn as phenol is corrosive. . ...read more.

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