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Immobilisation of lactose

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Introduction

MOS ALBAYATY IMMOBILISATION OF LACTOSE AIM: To determine whether glucose concentration increases as the amount of whey (lactose) passed over immobilised enzymes (lactase) increases. The use of immobilised enzymes is a modern technique used in biology. Enzymes are trapped in a gel bead or on a fibrous mesh rather than being free in solution. Lactose -A disaccharide found in milk -In cheese production the waste whey contains lactose and protein, which cause problems in sewage disposal/pollution. -Cannot be used in food products because many people are lactose-intolerant. -Produces gritty crystals in food products -Only 20% as sweet as sucrose therefore large quantities are needed to give required sweetness in food. APPARATUS: -Beakers -Pipette -Incubator of 37?c -Milk -Rennet -Tea strainer -Lactase -Alginate gel solution -Glass rod -Calcium chloride solution -Clamp -Plastic syringe barrel -Distilled water -Nylon gauze -Short rubber tube -Hoffman clip PREDICTION: I believe that as the whey is passed over the immobilised enzyme solution, its glucose concentration increases. Hydrolysis of lactose yields the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. This means that the breaking down of lactose, which is found in milk/whey, increases the amounts of glucose and galactose. ...read more.

Middle

Above this, was clamped a 10cm3 syringe barrel. The gel beads were to be left in the calcium chloride solution for 10 minutes to harden, then strained with a tea strainer and rinsed with distilled water. The final step involved in making a column of immobilised lactase. Here, a syringe barrel was clamped above a small beaker, and a small piece of nylon gauze was placed in the bottom of the syringe. A short length of rubber tubing was attached to the syringe outlet, and a Hoffman clip was screwed on to seal the end of the syringe. This clip can be used to control the flow of liquid from the syringe. The beads were then pored into the syringe barrel. It was now time to pour the whey into the column to run through the beads of immobilised lactase and collect in the beaker. This is where hydrolysis takes place. A glucose test strip was used to see how much glucose content had entered our final solution. RESULTS: SOLUTION GLUCOSE CONTENT Whey 0% Milk 0% End Solution 1% CONCLUSION: The results show that whey does not contain any traces of glucose content, as is the same with milk. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would affect the final results as when the lactose would be passed over the lactase, small amounts of the curd may interrupt and affect hydrolysis. This would result in the lactose being broken down less, and therefore less amounts of glucose content would be produced. To overcome this problem, the milk that has become curdled could be placed into a tea strainer over a beaker, not only once, but repeated several times to increase the probability that the two substances have fully separated. Another factor affecting the results of the experiment would be the amount of times the lactose is passed over the lactase. If lactose is passed over the lactase only once, then it may not have been fully hydrolysed. This is a mistake I made. In order to ensure that it has been fully broken down, it could be passed over the lactase a number of times. This way, the glucose content could be increased as hydrolysis of lactose yields glucose. In other words, as hydrolysis of lactose increases, so does the glucose content. This is another way of improving my results. This process of passing lactose over lactase several times to increase hydrolysis of lactose could be used in factories to increase glucose content, and to save money. ...read more.

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