• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Immune System.

Extracts from this document...


James Potter Jake Morris 4th Period Honors Bio The immune system plays a very important role in the functioning of our bodies. The basic function of our immune system is preventing the growing and spreading of cancers, as well as attacking and fighting invading pathogens. The immune system does this by neutralizing their toxins. The immune system is a two-part defense mechanism. It is made up of cells, organs, tissues, and body systems that fight bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, and harmful chemicals. The immune system protects the human body against problems that may arise during the process of immunization. The functioning and roles of the immune system varies upon each organ, in terms of fighting off pathogens. Keeping pathogens from the blood is the function of the spleen. The spleen is around the size of an apple and is located directly behind the stomach. ...read more.


If your skin gets significantly corrupted it can eventually even become a threaten to your life! If you have burns of any degree, you are definitely defenseless to infections. Numerous fungi and bacteria are toxic to secretions the skin discharges like, for example, oils, sweats, and waxes. The cell walls of bacteria are destroyed by enzymes like lysozyme, which is commonly found in sweat. The growth of pathogens, whatsoever, restrains the maturing of pathogens which sometimes results in detrimental infections. There are various actions and proceedings of B cells and T cells in an immune response. Step one is when the macrophage engulfs and obliterates a pathogen. Then the macrophage flaunts portions of the antigens of the pathogen. These are located on the surface of its own cell membrane. The macrophage liberates a cytokine named interleukin-1, when a helper T cell with a receptor pairing to this antigen encounters the macrophage. ...read more.


Various symptoms of general allergies are the result from the discharge of histamine by cells that are bared to the antigen. Antihistamines are drugs that assist to counteract the results of histamine. They can alleviate the symptoms of allergies. Most allergies are not life threatening although they are very irksome and inopportune. But, unfortunately, there are still a handful of people out there that experience brutal reactions to allergies that can end up being fatal. The immune system responds in a regulated manner to microbes and eradicates them, but it does not respond to self-antigens. Several regulatory mechanisms function to terminate responses to foreign antigens, returning the immune system to a basal state after the antigen has been cleared, and to maintain insensitivity to self-antigens. Here, recent advances in understanding of the molecular bases and physiologic roles of the mechanisms of immune homeostasis are examined. Heat control is also a major function of homeostatic conditions in the immune system. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Phagocytosis and the Immune Response

    Antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins (Ig) they are synthesised in response to the presence of foreign substances. Each antibody molecule has: * Two identical heavy chains of amino acids (H) of 50 000 to 60 000 relative molecular mass.

  2. The Immune system.

    The non-specific inflammatory response can prevent the spread of infection. However, if infection does spreads there are two defences - an antibody or a cellular defence. These are known as the immune response. They rely on the actions of the white blood cells, T and B lymphocytes and they provide protection against any future infections.

  1. Blood and The Immune System.

    They help to control the allergic response, for example they secrete enzymes that inactivate histamine. Their number increase with allergic reactions and in response to parasitic infection such as tape or hook worm. The Immune System The immune system is a group of cells, molecules, and tissues that help defend the body against diseases and other harmful invaders.

  2. The Specific Immune System

    It is able to do this through a process called antigen processing. Macrophages are the major antigen-processing cells, but other cells, including B-lymphocytes, can also process antigens. Antigen-processing cells consume an antigen and chop it into small fragments. The fragments are then packaged within the major histocompatibility complex molecules and transported to the surface of the cell membrane.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work