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Immunology - Encapsulated bacteria

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1. (a) What are encapsulated bacteria and give examples? This is a species of bacteria which contains a capsule containing a polysaccharide and which shields bacteria even in the process of phagocytosis and supporting it to avoiding the killing a prokaryotic cell. This aids the bacteria in preventing it to be denatured. It has been found that all bacteria produce meningitis. Examples of encapsulated bacteria are listed below * Neisseria meningitides - causes meningococcal meningitis. This goes through the nasopharynx and can then pass through the blood and meninges. * Bacillus anthracis - produces cutaneous, inhalation and gastrointestinal kinds of anthrax. These are spread by endospores of the bacterium. * Bordetella pertussis - triggers of pertussis and heavy coughing. These are spread across the respiratory route. (b) Discuss how encapsulated bacteria evade certain aspects of the immune system? The innate system is the primary defence and is in first contact with any damaging bacteria. This is present from birth and will react to any matter that is unknown to the body. This is achieved with the help of external barriers which cover the side gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and a key example is the mucus membrane. ...read more.


What mechanism are in place in the acquired immune system to deal with these encapsulated bacteria? IgC plays a crucial role in a defence and are agonist which act as opsonising antibodies. They attach themselves to the capsule and to the available pathogen. IgC contains proteins which connect to capsules via the epitopes. This then connects to a phagocyte and once in contact can prevent encapsulated bacteria. This is done by an insertion of a phagasome with the help of a phagocyte. The acquired immune systems may contain two more mechanism which are the following. * Humoral immune response which triggers of specific B cells to reproduce and get secrete large amounts of certain antibodies. These antibodies can interact with a particular micro-organism or even a potential virus and prevent an infection. These antibodies work in a way by disabling antigens; which then join to proteins and link to the antigen piercing holes into the bacteria which is known as lysis. * Cell mediated immunity involves macrophages surrounds antigens and chooses to take specific sections required from antigens and uses it to as a part of its own protein chain and allowing it to identify the encapsulated bacteria. ...read more.


These antigens can be altered in anyway and therefore are not accessible with any vaccine. Therefore vaccines have to be changed constantly to keep up with this conversion. Both of them draw out antigen reaction. However in this case it is contain a capsule and therefore the linkage of antibodies and epiptope will not hinder the virus to combine with the cell. CD4 will be attached to the cell. 3a) multiple myeloma is a developing disease related to the blood is in a form of a cancer of plasma cells which creates antibodies or immunoglobins. This is made up of great number of damaging immunoglobins which are in the bone marrow. This leads to increase amount of production of IgA, IgD, and IgG immunoglobin. Hperglacemia - produces renal damage, unusual production of immunoglobins and are symptoms of this disease. This occurs mostly in the skull, ribs, spine and pelvis. B) Monoclonal antibodies are also referred to myeloma cells related to tumour. These cannot give off immunoglobins and lack enzymes of HGPRT. These cells are used as tools in medicine to detect diseases, cancers and pregnancy as well as AIDS. These antibodies are processed in the lab and are able to remain in the immune system for a very long time and form a hybrid cell and can replicate thousands of antibodies which are limited to their specific antigen. ...read more.

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