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In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be contin

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Introduction

Introduction In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be continued within the society for the right purpose. What is Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis? In medicine and clinical genetics, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a scientific technique which is used to identify genetic defects in the embryo. The process starts with a basic In Vitro Fertilization. For PGD, the early embryo is examined after IVF for inherited disorders or to determine the sex of the embryo for sex-related genetic disorders. � Conditions diagnosed with PGD PGD is offered for three major groups of diseases, including sex-linked disorders, single gene defects and chromosomal disorders. * Sex-linked disorders- PGD can be used to determine the sex of an embryo in which the specific genetic defect is unknown. Sex-linked recessive disorders include hemophilia, fragile X syndrome, most of the neuromuscular dystrophies and hundreds of other diseases. PGD can also be used for sex-linked dominant disorders such as Rett syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, pseudo hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D-resistant rickets. X-linked diseases are passed to the child through a mother who is a carrier. They are passed by an abnormal X chromosome and manifest in sons, who do not inherit the normal X chromosome from the father. � * Single gene defect-PGD is used to identify single gene defects such as cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington disease. ...read more.

Middle

This may cause gender imbalance, especially in countries like India and China where there is a strong preference for male children. 6 Parents could also use PGD to create genetically modified babies which is commonly known as 'designer babies'. They can use PGD to select embryos having certain genetic traits which they consider desirable. This may be perceived as practicing some form of eugenics. 6 "I agree with the point where, you want to pick the sex, the colour of the eyes, the colour....that's pushing it. But when it comes to medical issues, I am a bit sensitive and I think I would want options for myself." PGD involves a lot of work, skills, time, equipments and the technique of IVF. This makes the technique very expensive meaning that its availability would be to those well off not the poor. Also a couple who can conceive naturally would be required to undergo the process of IVF, an expensive process with no guarantee of success should they want PGD. 6 Another objection is that in the case of PGD, the risks of IVF must be taken into account. An IVF treatment comprises great physical and mental strain. Also, possible problems related to IVF, such as an increased rate of multiple pregnancies an increased risk of damage to the embryo/fetus or ethical problems of selective fetocide must be pointed out.7 If a genetic disorder or hereditary condition such as cancer or the gene for Huntington's disease is detected, then the embryo would be destroyed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The allowance of PGD would reduce the number of babies born with diagnosable diseases. For example the cost of lifetime medical care of a person with cystic fibrosis is more than �1000 .PGD would gradually lead to the complete eradication of many dreadful genetic disorders. If one can prevent the birth of a disabled child, especially at an early stage, why should one avoid this opportunity? PGD can also serve as an answer to unexplained infertility. I think the British people would be happy if PGD is allowed because, from a survey I performed, 15 out of 20 people said they would like to see PGD be allowed and also used for the right purposes. When PGD becomes more widespread, it can serve as a valuable alternative to prenatal diagnosis and also be the cure for incurable genetic disorders while more time is spent researching for medicines. References 1. Authors: JJ Marik, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California School of Medicine at Los Angeles; Director, Tyler Medical Clinic. www. emedicine.com/med/topic3520. 2. Seibel, Machelle M., Ch. 42. Infertility: A Comprehensive Text-Second Ed. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html 3. www.e-medicine.com 4. Twenty First Century Science Text Book Higher Tier. 5. Zouves Fertility Centre. http://www.govif.com/news/newsletter.php4?vol=3 6. Author: Paavani. http://ntu.edu.sg/home2004/PAVA0001/info.htm#Disadvantagesof PGD 7. http://www.genetics-and-society.org/technologies/other/arguments.html. 8. L.A, S.F.Meikle, C-Ferre, H.B Peterson, G. Jeng and L.S Wilcox. New England Journal of Medicine. ISBN: 346-731-737 9. www.dnapolicy.org/images/reporpdfs/PGDDiscussionChallengesConference.pdf 10. http://www.doctorslounge.com/fertility/articles/pgd/pgd-tehnique/index.htm 11. http://www.govif.com/aboutus/breakthroughs-pgd.php4 12. Authors: I.Mune S, Magli C, Cohen J. Positive Outcome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuplodies human reproduction. Hum reprod. 1994 Figure 1. www.475-baby.com/tmpl_images/embryo_biopsy. ...read more.

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