• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be contin

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be continued within the society for the right purpose. What is Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis? In medicine and clinical genetics, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a scientific technique which is used to identify genetic defects in the embryo. The process starts with a basic In Vitro Fertilization. For PGD, the early embryo is examined after IVF for inherited disorders or to determine the sex of the embryo for sex-related genetic disorders. � Conditions diagnosed with PGD PGD is offered for three major groups of diseases, including sex-linked disorders, single gene defects and chromosomal disorders. * Sex-linked disorders- PGD can be used to determine the sex of an embryo in which the specific genetic defect is unknown. Sex-linked recessive disorders include hemophilia, fragile X syndrome, most of the neuromuscular dystrophies and hundreds of other diseases. PGD can also be used for sex-linked dominant disorders such as Rett syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, pseudo hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D-resistant rickets. X-linked diseases are passed to the child through a mother who is a carrier. They are passed by an abnormal X chromosome and manifest in sons, who do not inherit the normal X chromosome from the father. � * Single gene defect-PGD is used to identify single gene defects such as cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington disease. ...read more.

Middle

This may cause gender imbalance, especially in countries like India and China where there is a strong preference for male children. 6 Parents could also use PGD to create genetically modified babies which is commonly known as 'designer babies'. They can use PGD to select embryos having certain genetic traits which they consider desirable. This may be perceived as practicing some form of eugenics. 6 "I agree with the point where, you want to pick the sex, the colour of the eyes, the colour....that's pushing it. But when it comes to medical issues, I am a bit sensitive and I think I would want options for myself." PGD involves a lot of work, skills, time, equipments and the technique of IVF. This makes the technique very expensive meaning that its availability would be to those well off not the poor. Also a couple who can conceive naturally would be required to undergo the process of IVF, an expensive process with no guarantee of success should they want PGD. 6 Another objection is that in the case of PGD, the risks of IVF must be taken into account. An IVF treatment comprises great physical and mental strain. Also, possible problems related to IVF, such as an increased rate of multiple pregnancies an increased risk of damage to the embryo/fetus or ethical problems of selective fetocide must be pointed out.7 If a genetic disorder or hereditary condition such as cancer or the gene for Huntington's disease is detected, then the embryo would be destroyed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The allowance of PGD would reduce the number of babies born with diagnosable diseases. For example the cost of lifetime medical care of a person with cystic fibrosis is more than �1000 .PGD would gradually lead to the complete eradication of many dreadful genetic disorders. If one can prevent the birth of a disabled child, especially at an early stage, why should one avoid this opportunity? PGD can also serve as an answer to unexplained infertility. I think the British people would be happy if PGD is allowed because, from a survey I performed, 15 out of 20 people said they would like to see PGD be allowed and also used for the right purposes. When PGD becomes more widespread, it can serve as a valuable alternative to prenatal diagnosis and also be the cure for incurable genetic disorders while more time is spent researching for medicines. References 1. Authors: JJ Marik, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California School of Medicine at Los Angeles; Director, Tyler Medical Clinic. www. emedicine.com/med/topic3520. 2. Seibel, Machelle M., Ch. 42. Infertility: A Comprehensive Text-Second Ed. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html 3. www.e-medicine.com 4. Twenty First Century Science Text Book Higher Tier. 5. Zouves Fertility Centre. http://www.govif.com/news/newsletter.php4?vol=3 6. Author: Paavani. http://ntu.edu.sg/home2004/PAVA0001/info.htm#Disadvantagesof PGD 7. http://www.genetics-and-society.org/technologies/other/arguments.html. 8. L.A, S.F.Meikle, C-Ferre, H.B Peterson, G. Jeng and L.S Wilcox. New England Journal of Medicine. ISBN: 346-731-737 9. www.dnapolicy.org/images/reporpdfs/PGDDiscussionChallengesConference.pdf 10. http://www.doctorslounge.com/fertility/articles/pgd/pgd-tehnique/index.htm 11. http://www.govif.com/aboutus/breakthroughs-pgd.php4 12. Authors: I.Mune S, Magli C, Cohen J. Positive Outcome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuplodies human reproduction. Hum reprod. 1994 Figure 1. www.475-baby.com/tmpl_images/embryo_biopsy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    Example, inaccurate depictions of schizophrenia (which is often confused in the media with multiple personality disorder) can lead to false beliefs, confusion, conflict, and a delay in receiving treatment. Understanding television British television admits that there is an industry heavily influenced by a lack of consideration for others, disingenuity and their importance is to achieve ratings for programmes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Should Gene therapy be allowed to prevent cystic fibrosis?

    3 star(s)

    * If the candidate was being treated for a single gene, this would be benefits when it is being treated with gene therapy, whereas more common diseases, like heart disease, arthritis, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, are cause by multiple effects on a variety of genes.

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    They do not want to be seen as a medical problem. Roy said that autism is apart of 'human diversity' and not a disease. Autistic people should 'embrace their neurodiversity.' However, whereas 'activists' such as Roy want to fight for social diversity, it is worrying parents of children that have a more severe form of ASD.

  2. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    Method: * A table was constructed which indicated the distances from the sea at which results were recorded and the average height to width ratio calculated from both repeats at each site. In the case of 4 sites, no results were recorded; therefore these were not counted in the statistical test.

  1. Parkinsons Disease

    'MAO is responsible for the mitochondrial metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine and serotonin.'11 Ethical implications Some of the many ethical issues revolve around the decision to move from testing on artificial tissue (often grown from stem cells, which may in the future replace animal testing altogether.

  2. case study- cystic fibrosis

    The extraction process destroys the embryo, which raises a variety of ethical concerns. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, cancer, and other diseases. Although cloning has been discussed as a "scientific Miracle"there have been many ethical dilemmas on whether it is right or wrong.

  1. The incurable nature of Huntington's disease and current treatments.

    Their percentage improvement was based on their UHDRS-score (Unified Huntington?s Disease Rating Scale) before and after the surgery. The follow up period varied from 8 -48 months between patients. UHDRS gives a measurement of improvement for 5 symptoms of Huntington?s disease.

  2. A study into the effectiveness of Hydroxycarbamide (Hydroxyurea) in treating the complications caused by ...

    In those who carry the sickle cell gene, the reduced amount of oxygen will cause crystals to form. These crystals alter the shape of the RBC, resulting in the characteristic sickle shape. To confirm and identify the amount of HbS present a test is used that separates out the different types of haemoglobin.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work