• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be contin

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction In this case study, I will examine an argument which aims to show that, the effort to prevent the effort to prevent the birth of severely disabled children with the use of Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis (PGD) is morally acceptable and should be continued within the society for the right purpose. What is Preimplantation Genetics Diagnosis? In medicine and clinical genetics, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a scientific technique which is used to identify genetic defects in the embryo. The process starts with a basic In Vitro Fertilization. For PGD, the early embryo is examined after IVF for inherited disorders or to determine the sex of the embryo for sex-related genetic disorders. � Conditions diagnosed with PGD PGD is offered for three major groups of diseases, including sex-linked disorders, single gene defects and chromosomal disorders. * Sex-linked disorders- PGD can be used to determine the sex of an embryo in which the specific genetic defect is unknown. Sex-linked recessive disorders include hemophilia, fragile X syndrome, most of the neuromuscular dystrophies and hundreds of other diseases. PGD can also be used for sex-linked dominant disorders such as Rett syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, pseudo hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D-resistant rickets. X-linked diseases are passed to the child through a mother who is a carrier. They are passed by an abnormal X chromosome and manifest in sons, who do not inherit the normal X chromosome from the father. � * Single gene defect-PGD is used to identify single gene defects such as cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington disease. ...read more.

Middle

This may cause gender imbalance, especially in countries like India and China where there is a strong preference for male children. 6 Parents could also use PGD to create genetically modified babies which is commonly known as 'designer babies'. They can use PGD to select embryos having certain genetic traits which they consider desirable. This may be perceived as practicing some form of eugenics. 6 "I agree with the point where, you want to pick the sex, the colour of the eyes, the colour....that's pushing it. But when it comes to medical issues, I am a bit sensitive and I think I would want options for myself." PGD involves a lot of work, skills, time, equipments and the technique of IVF. This makes the technique very expensive meaning that its availability would be to those well off not the poor. Also a couple who can conceive naturally would be required to undergo the process of IVF, an expensive process with no guarantee of success should they want PGD. 6 Another objection is that in the case of PGD, the risks of IVF must be taken into account. An IVF treatment comprises great physical and mental strain. Also, possible problems related to IVF, such as an increased rate of multiple pregnancies an increased risk of damage to the embryo/fetus or ethical problems of selective fetocide must be pointed out.7 If a genetic disorder or hereditary condition such as cancer or the gene for Huntington's disease is detected, then the embryo would be destroyed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The allowance of PGD would reduce the number of babies born with diagnosable diseases. For example the cost of lifetime medical care of a person with cystic fibrosis is more than �1000 .PGD would gradually lead to the complete eradication of many dreadful genetic disorders. If one can prevent the birth of a disabled child, especially at an early stage, why should one avoid this opportunity? PGD can also serve as an answer to unexplained infertility. I think the British people would be happy if PGD is allowed because, from a survey I performed, 15 out of 20 people said they would like to see PGD be allowed and also used for the right purposes. When PGD becomes more widespread, it can serve as a valuable alternative to prenatal diagnosis and also be the cure for incurable genetic disorders while more time is spent researching for medicines. References 1. Authors: JJ Marik, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California School of Medicine at Los Angeles; Director, Tyler Medical Clinic. www. emedicine.com/med/topic3520. 2. Seibel, Machelle M., Ch. 42. Infertility: A Comprehensive Text-Second Ed. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html 3. www.e-medicine.com 4. Twenty First Century Science Text Book Higher Tier. 5. Zouves Fertility Centre. http://www.govif.com/news/newsletter.php4?vol=3 6. Author: Paavani. http://ntu.edu.sg/home2004/PAVA0001/info.htm#Disadvantagesof PGD 7. http://www.genetics-and-society.org/technologies/other/arguments.html. 8. L.A, S.F.Meikle, C-Ferre, H.B Peterson, G. Jeng and L.S Wilcox. New England Journal of Medicine. ISBN: 346-731-737 9. www.dnapolicy.org/images/reporpdfs/PGDDiscussionChallengesConference.pdf 10. http://www.doctorslounge.com/fertility/articles/pgd/pgd-tehnique/index.htm 11. http://www.govif.com/aboutus/breakthroughs-pgd.php4 12. Authors: I.Mune S, Magli C, Cohen J. Positive Outcome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuplodies human reproduction. Hum reprod. 1994 Figure 1. www.475-baby.com/tmpl_images/embryo_biopsy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Should Gene therapy be allowed to prevent cystic fibrosis?

    3 star(s)

    * If the candidate was being treated for a single gene, this would be benefits when it is being treated with gene therapy, whereas more common diseases, like heart disease, arthritis, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, are cause by multiple effects on a variety of genes.

  2. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    This was calculated by simply subtracting the first value of rank one from the first value in rank two. This method was repeated for the remainder of the results and produced both positive and negative results. * Finally to discount the negative values, all values were squared to produce positive integers (d�).

  1. Parkinsons Disease

    'Some types of virus, such as retroviruses, integrate their genetic material (including the new gene) into a chromosome in the human cell. Other viruses, such as adenoviruses, introduce their DNA into the nucleus of the cell, but the DNA is not integrated into a chromosome.'13There is still much development needed

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE INHERITANCE This form of gene-affected inheritance is referred to as recessive because two of the same gene mutations are required for a child to be affected by a disorder. This suggests that both parents must be carriers of the faulty gene.

  1. How will the genetics affect medicine in the 21st Century?

    The decoding of the human genome will allow pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs that act on the mechanism of the disease and identify susceptible genes (to diseases, like the common cold) for early detection and prevention. Furthermore, this information will allow pharmaceutical companies to identify from a certain individuals'

  2. Who Should Have Access To Genetic Testing Results? Should Genetic Testing Be Mandatory. ...

    These choices can effect people for a long period. The notion that genetic test results be available to all, will possibly lead to stigma and societal judgements, because the parents were irresponsible in keeping the child that they knew to have this disease.

  1. case study- cystic fibrosis

    The extraction process destroys the embryo, which raises a variety of ethical concerns. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, cancer, and other diseases. Although cloning has been discussed as a "scientific Miracle"there have been many ethical dilemmas on whether it is right or wrong.

  2. The incurable nature of Huntington's disease and current treatments.

    that produces the GDNF protein (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor). The GDNF protein prevents neural apoptosis (cell self-destruction) and promotes survival and differentiation of neurons. This means that the neurons lost in the brain due to neural apoptosis are replaced and the patients? brain function is improved.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work