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In this essay I will be writing about the structure and the function of biochemical monomers and how they are related to one another, and how they are formed at macromolecular level. These include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

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Introduction

Biology In this essay I will be writing about the structure and the function of biochemical monomers and how they are related to one another, and how they are formed at macromolecular level. These include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are all known as organic molecules, this is because they are living organisms, which contain carbon. The carbon atom is very unusual, as it is able to bond with other carbon atoms, as well as with other elements. Due to this many organic molecules are very large and are know as macromolecules. The smaller organic molecules are known as monomers and can join together to from polymers. Condensation The two monomers join to from a polymer and a water molecule is removed. Hydrolysis The polymer is broken down and a water molecule is added. Carbohydrates A Carbohydrates molecule contains three different elements, which are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are always twice as many hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms. ...read more.

Middle

To test for these reducing sugars, is to heat them up with Benedict reagent and if the colour changes form the starting colour blue to brick red, then a sugar is present. The way that Benedict reagent works is that it contains copper sulphate, the sugars reduces the copper to solid precipitate of copper oxide, which is red. Non-reducing sugar, which is sucrose, needs to be heated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and changes the sucrose into a monosaccharid (glucose) and then it is made into an alkaline, and now it would be ready to be tested with Benedict reagent. Proteins There are many different types of proteins formed, this is because proteins are made from amino acids, and there are twenty different types of amino acids used in living organisms. These amino acids can join up in any order, and each chain is a different protein. So because amino acids make proteins they will have the same chemical elements, which are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. ...read more.

Conclusion

You need to get 2cm of the extract, and add 2cm of dilute potassium hydroxide and a few drops of dilute copper sulphate solution. If there is any proteins present, then the colour will change from a blue to purple. Lipids Lipids are a very useful and diverse group, as they are able to dissolve in organic compounds, but not in water. There are different types of lipids they are, Triglycerides - these are fats and oils, which are a very important fuel resource, as a mass of lipid would give a large amount of energy when oxidised during respiration. Also Triglycerides are used as insulation by mammals e.g. seals. Triglycerides are made from glycerol and three fatty acids molecules. Phospholipids - these contain a phosphate group. In a Phospholipids, a glycerol joins with two fatty acids molecules and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids are insoluble in water, and are known as hydrophobic. Which means that when Phospholipids are placed I water, they rearranged themselves into a double layer (Phospholipids bilayer). This is what happens in our cell membranes. ...read more.

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