• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

In this experiment, you will investigate some of the important chemical properties of acids and bases.

Extracts from this document...


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES In this experiment, you will investigate some of the important chemical properties of acids and bases. This practical will be assessed for Data Collection, Data Analysis and Evaluation. Equipment required Bunsen burner Dropper Test tubes (6) Taper and matches Hydrochloric acid [HCl] 2mol L (30ml) Sodium Hydroxide solution [NaOH] 2mol L (30ml) Lime Water [Ca(OH)2] (20ml) Vinegar [3 - 4% CH3COOH] Two pea sized aluminium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc About 1g each of: Copper (II) oxide [CuO] Sodium Hydrogencarbonate [NaHCO3] Ammonium Chloride [NH4Cl] Calcium Carbonate (marble chips) [CaCO3] Sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate) [Na CH3COOH] Sodium sulphide [Na2S] Sodium sulphite [Na2SO3] Blue litmus paper Red litmus paper Stopper fitted with gas delivery tube A Effect of Acids and Bases on Litmus #1 Place a drop of 2 mol L HCl onto pieces of red and blue litmus paper. Repeat using 2 mol L NaOH. B Reaction of Bases with Metals #1 Place pea sized pieces of Mg, Zn, Al, and Cu into separate test tubes. Add 2 - 3 ml of 2 mol L HCl to each. If there is no sign of reaction warm the mixture carefully. #2 If a gas is evolved, collect it by inverting another test tube over the mouth of the reaction tube. ...read more.


2. The Red Litmus Paper turns Blue when it reacts with NaOH and the Blue Litmus remains the same. Part B 1. Magnesium - it reacts very fast and no heating is required. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 2. Zinc - reaction proceeds without heating. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 3. Aluminum - reaction requires heating. A gas is released which extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. 4. Copper - reaction does not occur even when heated. Part D When HCl is added to CuO and heated, it turns green Part E 1. CaCO3 - Limewater turns milky, gas evolved 2. NaHCO3 - Limewater turns milky fast, gas evolved 3. Na2S - Exothermic Reaction, gas evolved 4. Na2SO3 - Endothermic, slightly pungent smelling gas evolved 5. CH3COONa - Vinegar smell gas after heating Part F 1. On adding blue litmus to 10 drops of 2mol L HCL. Blue litmus paper turned pink. 2. On adding 20 drops of 2mol L NaOH and the litmus paper turned back to blue. Part G 1. Blue Litmus paper turns red when tested with the gas 2. The gas has a pungent odor. Data analysis: Part A: An indicator is a weak acid or base in which the dissociated form is a different color to the undissociated form. ...read more.


This gas can be identified by its pungent odor. When sodium sulfite is made to react with hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide is released which has a pungent odor. Na2SO3 + HCl ==> NaCl + H2O + SO2 When ethanoates are made to react with acids, they release methane and carbon dioxide gas. When sodium ethanoate is made to react with hydrochloric acid, a these gases are released. CH3COONa + HCl ==> NaCl + CH4 + CO2 Part F: Acids react with bases to form salt and water. These reactions are called neutralization reactions. When litmus paper is added to the strong acid initially, the blue litmus paper turns red. However, when sodium hydroxide is added, the litmus paper turns back to blue. This is because the sodium hydroxide neutralizes the acid and increases the pH of the solution. HCl + NaOH ==> NaCl + H2O Part G: When cations of weak bases are made to react with strong bases, the more reactive ions displace the less reactive ones to release a gas. In this reaction, the sodium ions displace the ammonium ions and methane gas is released which has a pungent odor. NaOH + NH4Cl ==> NaCl + H2O + NH3 Conclusion: In this lab, we tested and observed the various chemical properties of acids and bases. We also learnt the ways in which gases release can be tested. The lab helps us understand the chemical properties of acids and bases clearly through practical application. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Heat of Neutralization. Objective: To investigate the ...

    5 star(s)

    method 1 in the experiment; the spot plotted on the graph was varying to the location we preferred, and it might make the answer a bit different to the correct one. The enthalpy change of neutralization should be much more negative, at least, smaller than -50kJ/mol.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    2.9155 x10-3 1.4970 x10-6 1.2475 x10-3 -6.6866 353 2.8329 x10-3 2.2472 x10-6 1.8727 x10-3 -6.2804 Now I will calculate the gradient of this graph, to give me the value of The two endpoints of this graph are (0.0028, -6.2804) and (0.0034, -9.3511).

  1. Identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography

    It was dried again and then it was heated in a oven at 105oC for 5 minutes. * The paper was removed from the oven, and then it was marked with a pencil of the positions of the coloured spots.

  2. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    This ensures that the test is fair. This is an accurate method as it is simple and therefore it is easy to avoid mistakes. I did not need to take a series of measurements throughout the reaction, which increases the chances of human error.

  1. Antacid Lab. Are name brand antacids better than generic brand antacids to neutralize ...

    This helped the pH of both antacids to have a pH over seven. However it read that the antacids were weak considering the pH was only a little over a pH of seven. It didn't make sense that the weak bases stood up to around 2000 drops of stomach acid.

  2. How do we make Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid react faster?

    There were a few problems during the practical. There was equipment failure, but this was remedied and we continued as normal. (It was the gas syringe that we experienced a problem with). My results are accurate enough to make a firm conclusion.

  1. Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as ...

    Because of Avogadro?s law, in gaseous reactions, gas volumes can replace the number of moles. 1. Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae. The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest whole number ratio of the atom or ions in the compound.

  2. The properties of transition metals

    Diamagnetism is characteristic of compounds where all the electrons are paired in the d sub-orbital. These elements are very hard, with high melting points and boiling points. Moving from left to right across the periodic table, the five d orbital become more filled.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work