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In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid.

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation Introduction In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid. The metals used will be: * Aluminium * Zinc * Iron * Tin * Lead * Nickel * Copper To make a prediction on what metals will be the ones that give the highest voltage when combined together you need to find out if the position in which the metals are at in the reactivity series would make a difference, and if it does, how? You also need to find out how the metals react with acids. We know that the higher the metal is in the reactivity series, the stronger it will react with an acid. Theory Batteries have chemicals inside to store energy. When two different metals that are connected by a wire are placed into an acid, a potential difference (voltage) is produced. This occurs because the metals react with the acid forming Hydrogen acid, a metal salt solution and an electric charge. The charge flows from the most reactive metal to the least reactive metal. Equipment The equipment used will be: * Acids * Metals * Wires * Voltmeters * Beakers * Measuring cylinders * Stop watches * Sandpaper The equipment should be placed like shown below: Method Collect all the equipment and place it as it is shown on the diagram above. ...read more.

Middle

The same voltmeter should also be used to make it a fair test. You might want to wear gloves to make sure the metals have a clean surface. Variables The variables in this experiment are: * The pairs of metals * The acids Results Tables Hydrochloric acid - strong acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.87 0.89 0.88 Nickel and zinc 0.85 0.83 0.84 Zinc and copper 0.74 0.72 0.73 Nickel and aluminium 0.68 0.66 0.67 Zinc and iron 0.54 0.56 0.55 Aluminium and tin 0.37 0.38 0.38 Lead and aluminium 0.29 0.29 0.29 Aluminium and zinc 0.21 0.22 0.22 Nickel and copper 0.14 0.15 0.15 Tin and copper 0.12 0.09 0.11 Iron and tin 0.10 0.09 0.10 Iron and lead 0.04 0.04 0.04 Aluminium and aluminium 0.01 0.00 0.01 Citric acid - weak acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.91 0.92 0.92 Copper and zinc 0.89 0.93 0.91 Aluminium and nickel 0.60 0.58 0.59 Copper and tin 0.48 0.46 0.47 Zinc and iron 0.22 0.21 0.22 Aluminium and zinc 0.11 0.12 0.12 Aluminium and aluminium 0.08 0.06 0.07 Nickel and copper 0.06 0.08 0.07 Analysis Bar chart 1 To analyse these results you need to have a look at the reactivity series of the metals which we have used. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation I think my experiment worked and it can show you that the higher the difference between the metals in the reactivity series, the higher the voltage. My experiment, though, wasn't very accurate as it showed quite a few anomalous results, and this wouldn't be the best experiment to do if you wanted to find out the exact voltage of pairs of metals. If there was no other choice you would have to repeat it at least ten times, to find out the most accurate average. The method worked, but not accurately. This means that the method is reliable in a way that it will work to show you in rough the order of the highest pairs of metals and go down to the lowest ones. It isn't reliable because it only gives you a rough idea of it, but if you wanted to print your results into a book or put them in the internet etc. you couldn't say that they were reliable enough. They are reliable enough to support the conclusion. I wouldn't know how to improve this experiment further apart from using more accurate equipment and repeating it more times so that anomalous results fit into the pattern. I think I got those anomalous results because the metals might have touched each other and give out the wrong voltage. It could be that I kept them in for longer or shorter than all other pairs of metals. By Maria Guisasola, 9.1 ...read more.

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