• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid.

Extracts from this document...


Chemistry Investigation Introduction In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid. The metals used will be: * Aluminium * Zinc * Iron * Tin * Lead * Nickel * Copper To make a prediction on what metals will be the ones that give the highest voltage when combined together you need to find out if the position in which the metals are at in the reactivity series would make a difference, and if it does, how? You also need to find out how the metals react with acids. We know that the higher the metal is in the reactivity series, the stronger it will react with an acid. Theory Batteries have chemicals inside to store energy. When two different metals that are connected by a wire are placed into an acid, a potential difference (voltage) is produced. This occurs because the metals react with the acid forming Hydrogen acid, a metal salt solution and an electric charge. The charge flows from the most reactive metal to the least reactive metal. Equipment The equipment used will be: * Acids * Metals * Wires * Voltmeters * Beakers * Measuring cylinders * Stop watches * Sandpaper The equipment should be placed like shown below: Method Collect all the equipment and place it as it is shown on the diagram above. ...read more.


The same voltmeter should also be used to make it a fair test. You might want to wear gloves to make sure the metals have a clean surface. Variables The variables in this experiment are: * The pairs of metals * The acids Results Tables Hydrochloric acid - strong acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.87 0.89 0.88 Nickel and zinc 0.85 0.83 0.84 Zinc and copper 0.74 0.72 0.73 Nickel and aluminium 0.68 0.66 0.67 Zinc and iron 0.54 0.56 0.55 Aluminium and tin 0.37 0.38 0.38 Lead and aluminium 0.29 0.29 0.29 Aluminium and zinc 0.21 0.22 0.22 Nickel and copper 0.14 0.15 0.15 Tin and copper 0.12 0.09 0.11 Iron and tin 0.10 0.09 0.10 Iron and lead 0.04 0.04 0.04 Aluminium and aluminium 0.01 0.00 0.01 Citric acid - weak acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.91 0.92 0.92 Copper and zinc 0.89 0.93 0.91 Aluminium and nickel 0.60 0.58 0.59 Copper and tin 0.48 0.46 0.47 Zinc and iron 0.22 0.21 0.22 Aluminium and zinc 0.11 0.12 0.12 Aluminium and aluminium 0.08 0.06 0.07 Nickel and copper 0.06 0.08 0.07 Analysis Bar chart 1 To analyse these results you need to have a look at the reactivity series of the metals which we have used. ...read more.


Evaluation I think my experiment worked and it can show you that the higher the difference between the metals in the reactivity series, the higher the voltage. My experiment, though, wasn't very accurate as it showed quite a few anomalous results, and this wouldn't be the best experiment to do if you wanted to find out the exact voltage of pairs of metals. If there was no other choice you would have to repeat it at least ten times, to find out the most accurate average. The method worked, but not accurately. This means that the method is reliable in a way that it will work to show you in rough the order of the highest pairs of metals and go down to the lowest ones. It isn't reliable because it only gives you a rough idea of it, but if you wanted to print your results into a book or put them in the internet etc. you couldn't say that they were reliable enough. They are reliable enough to support the conclusion. I wouldn't know how to improve this experiment further apart from using more accurate equipment and repeating it more times so that anomalous results fit into the pattern. I think I got those anomalous results because the metals might have touched each other and give out the wrong voltage. It could be that I kept them in for longer or shorter than all other pairs of metals. By Maria Guisasola, 9.1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    5 g of it is used; this is excess anhydrous sodium carbonate used, we only need 2.65g (this is explained later in the next section). The reason for this is because, when it is heated up, the mass will differ due to any water in the sodium carbonate being evaporated.

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    + HBr(aq) --> HBrO(aq) (Equation 3.8.6) Step 5 (fast): HBrO(aq) + HBr(aq) --> Br2 (aq) + H2O(l) (aq) (Equation 3.8.7) 3.9 - Summary of Conclusions The aims of my investigation, as stated in the introduction, were to find the rate equation for the reaction, find a suitable catalyst, and find

  1. Electrochemistry - Inventing Better Batteries

    After extensive research into different forms of salt bridges, our group believes that in using the porous pot salt bridge the decrease in resistance provided by the pot will increase the voltage and current readings of the original Daniell Cell.

  2. The position of different metals in the reactivity series and their effect on activation ...

    The value of lnA shall be expressed with an accuracy of two decimal places. l My other method is to react different metals with dilute HCl and then quench reaction by removing the metal and titrate with a standard solution that I will make.

  1. Describe the construction, operation and application of distillation equipment used in industry

    There are still points at the side of the column for taking off product, however this can be more difficult than taking off product in a tray column. Packed columns are generally used where two products are being separated, one can be taken off the top and the other at the bottom.

  2. Activity Series of Metals Lab

    Materials 1. 10 test tubes 2. 10 beakers 3. test tube rack 4. sand paper Metals: 5. 10 aluminum pieces 6. 2 iron nails 7. 10 zinc pieces 8. 5 magnesium pieces 9. 5 copper pieces 10. 5 tin pieces 11.

  1. Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as ...

    accurate results to be obtained and reduced the costs involved in the process; for example the use of open cut mining of low grade ores and the flotation process, led to lower extraction costs. The creation of heavy machinery, and improved knowledge on their properties and extraction methods, have enabled

  2. Purification of aluminium from Bauxite

    is important because it contains the carbon dioxide which is good in helping remove impurities Oxygen The oxygen is important because it burns the coke which allows heat to be created, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide The coke It burns in the air and makes heat and makes carbon by

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work