• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid.

Extracts from this document...


Chemistry Investigation Introduction In this investigation we will find out which two metals combined together give the higher voltage when reacting with acid. The metals used will be: * Aluminium * Zinc * Iron * Tin * Lead * Nickel * Copper To make a prediction on what metals will be the ones that give the highest voltage when combined together you need to find out if the position in which the metals are at in the reactivity series would make a difference, and if it does, how? You also need to find out how the metals react with acids. We know that the higher the metal is in the reactivity series, the stronger it will react with an acid. Theory Batteries have chemicals inside to store energy. When two different metals that are connected by a wire are placed into an acid, a potential difference (voltage) is produced. This occurs because the metals react with the acid forming Hydrogen acid, a metal salt solution and an electric charge. The charge flows from the most reactive metal to the least reactive metal. Equipment The equipment used will be: * Acids * Metals * Wires * Voltmeters * Beakers * Measuring cylinders * Stop watches * Sandpaper The equipment should be placed like shown below: Method Collect all the equipment and place it as it is shown on the diagram above. ...read more.


The same voltmeter should also be used to make it a fair test. You might want to wear gloves to make sure the metals have a clean surface. Variables The variables in this experiment are: * The pairs of metals * The acids Results Tables Hydrochloric acid - strong acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.87 0.89 0.88 Nickel and zinc 0.85 0.83 0.84 Zinc and copper 0.74 0.72 0.73 Nickel and aluminium 0.68 0.66 0.67 Zinc and iron 0.54 0.56 0.55 Aluminium and tin 0.37 0.38 0.38 Lead and aluminium 0.29 0.29 0.29 Aluminium and zinc 0.21 0.22 0.22 Nickel and copper 0.14 0.15 0.15 Tin and copper 0.12 0.09 0.11 Iron and tin 0.10 0.09 0.10 Iron and lead 0.04 0.04 0.04 Aluminium and aluminium 0.01 0.00 0.01 Citric acid - weak acid Pairs of metals 1st time 2nd time Average Aluminium and copper 0.91 0.92 0.92 Copper and zinc 0.89 0.93 0.91 Aluminium and nickel 0.60 0.58 0.59 Copper and tin 0.48 0.46 0.47 Zinc and iron 0.22 0.21 0.22 Aluminium and zinc 0.11 0.12 0.12 Aluminium and aluminium 0.08 0.06 0.07 Nickel and copper 0.06 0.08 0.07 Analysis Bar chart 1 To analyse these results you need to have a look at the reactivity series of the metals which we have used. ...read more.


Evaluation I think my experiment worked and it can show you that the higher the difference between the metals in the reactivity series, the higher the voltage. My experiment, though, wasn't very accurate as it showed quite a few anomalous results, and this wouldn't be the best experiment to do if you wanted to find out the exact voltage of pairs of metals. If there was no other choice you would have to repeat it at least ten times, to find out the most accurate average. The method worked, but not accurately. This means that the method is reliable in a way that it will work to show you in rough the order of the highest pairs of metals and go down to the lowest ones. It isn't reliable because it only gives you a rough idea of it, but if you wanted to print your results into a book or put them in the internet etc. you couldn't say that they were reliable enough. They are reliable enough to support the conclusion. I wouldn't know how to improve this experiment further apart from using more accurate equipment and repeating it more times so that anomalous results fit into the pattern. I think I got those anomalous results because the metals might have touched each other and give out the wrong voltage. It could be that I kept them in for longer or shorter than all other pairs of metals. By Maria Guisasola, 9.1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    * All hair must be tied up and out of the way, or else you can damage your hair. Your hair can also get in the way of you seeing what you are doing in the experiment. Apparatus: * 400 ml of Distilled Water: 400 ml of distilled water is

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    /s /10-3 s-1 1.25 130.67 7.65 1.00 140.67 7.11 0.75 169.67 5.89 0.50 237.00 4.22 0.25 429.67 2.33 0.00 - 0.00 (Table 3.5.2) The graph of against concentration of bromate ions (graph 3.5.2) is on page 35. It also shows clearly a linear correlation exists between the initial rate of the reaction and the concentration of bromate ions.

  1. Magnesium and hydrochloric acid react together readily. Plan and carry out an investigation testing ...

    I predict that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the rate of reaction will be. I predict this because I know that the higher the concentration of the acid, the greater the number of acid ions present in that volume.

  2. Methods of analysis and detection

    Normal amino acids will be look like the one on the left. If there is an internal transfer of a hydrogen ion, a zwitterion will be released. If the pH has increased, the zwitterions will then become, If the pH has decreased, the zwitterions will then become, One of the uses for electrophoresis will be used for genetic fingerprint: 1.

  1. Electrochemistry - Inventing Better Batteries

    According to the Standard Reduction Potentials for Half-Reactions table, our group hypothesises that by changing the half cells so that their E0 values are a greater distance apart that the voltage and current will show an increase and improve the Daniell Cell.

  2. Activity Series of Metals Lab

    This is due to the fact that according to the activity series of metal, the lone metals were not able to displace the metals in the ionic compounds. The lone metals are lower on the activity series of metal than the metals in the ionic compounds causing the chemical reactions to be not possible.

  1. Purification of aluminium from Bauxite

    is important because it contains the carbon dioxide which is good in helping remove impurities Oxygen The oxygen is important because it burns the coke which allows heat to be created, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide The coke It burns in the air and makes heat and makes carbon by

  2. Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as ...

    Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago The discovery of numerous new metals can be seen as evidence, in relation to the developments in science and technology within the past two hundred years.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work