• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Infertility and Assisted Reproduction Technology.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Reproduction Assisted Reproductive Technology Ramius What is Infertility? They consider a couple to be infertile if; A woman under 35 fails to become pregnant after 12 months of regular unprotected sex, A woman whose age is over 35, the threshold is six months instead of 12 to become pregnant after regular unprotected sex. (Declining egg quality of females over the age of 35), the female is incapable of carrying a pregnancy to term.1 The chance of a fertile couple conceiving each month is only 25% after having regular coitus.2 Causes of Infertility Female The majority of infertile couples are actually sub fertile, this is when eggs and sperm are produced but have difficulty conceiving due to disorders such as hormone imbalances and problems of the reproductive tract (discussed below). Causes of total infertility are when no eggs or sperm are produced but this is very rare. 3Females account for 35-40 per cent of all fertility problems. The most common condition where a female cannot become pregnant is called Endometriosis. This condition occurs when the endometrial tissue (the uterine lining that sheds with each monthly period) grows outside the uterus. ...read more.

Middle

Sperm quality is often impaired. Without sperm, egg fertilization and implantation cannot take place. Exposing Testes to High Temperatures Exposing the testes to high temperatures can affect the ability of the sperm to move and fertilize an egg. For instance, men with cryptorchism have testicles that do not descent into the scrotum. That means the testes are still inside the body cavity, which has a higher temperature than the external scrotum. Tight underwear can also increase the temperature in the scrotum as they are pulled closer to the body. Blocked Sperm Ducts Blocked sperm ducts are also to blame for male infertility. A small number of men have vas deferens or sperm ducts that are blocked or damaged. This prevents the sperm from reaching the partner's egg. Blocked sperm ducts can be a result of an infection such as mumps, injury to the testicles, congenital defects or a vasectomy. Types of Assisted Reproductive Technology IVF IVF is used to treat infertility that arises from blockages of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, abnormal sperm, and some cases of unexplained infertility. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some studies showed that single heterosexual parents' children have more difficulties than children who have parents of the same sex," Ellen C. Perrin9, says. "They did better in discipline, self-esteem, and had less psychosocial difficulties at home and at school. 10 With this information on the table I see no reason why we, Australia, should outlaw same-sex marriage, in the midst of all this the positive results of same-sex parenting gives equal and even better results than heterosexual parenting. Some couples have been reported of actually flying or travelling to countries which allow A.R.T to become pregnant because their countries believes it is wrong to allow A.R.T. Throughout this report, it has described the positive aspects of Assisted Reproductive Technology but also the negative side. Although many people acknowledge the dangers of A.R.T, they still proceed to take the risk and try and become pregnant. Types and causes of infertility have also been reviewed to further enlighten the facts of infertility. 1 http://www.news-medical.net/health/Infertility-What-is-Infertility.aspx 2 http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/stories/2007/05/30/1919840.htm 3 http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/stories/2007/05/30/1919840.htm 4 http://www.babycenter.com.au/preconception/suspectingaproblem/majorcauses/ 5 http://www.apparatuschallenge.com/topic/infertility+in+men.php 6 http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/how_does_male_reproductive_system_work_000067_2.htm 7 http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/07/1044579934913.html 8 http://www.ucsfhealth.org/adult/medical_services/womens_health/fertility/fertilityICSI.html 9 MD, Professor of Pediatrics at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston 10 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/10/12/health/webmd/main938234.shtml ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Response to the question

Specific Comments
Lacks an introduction to tie in infertility with ways to tackle the problem.
You gave the criteria that your sources consider to be infertile, but you didn't explain what infertility actually is "Infertility is the biological inability of ...

Read full review

Response to the question

Specific Comments
Lacks an introduction to tie in infertility with ways to tackle the problem.
You gave the criteria that your sources consider to be infertile, but you didn't explain what infertility actually is "Infertility is the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception"
You gave a good range of causes for infertility both in men and women, and I like the way you had headings for the male section. Putting the female section into headings and expanding them to the level of the 'male' section would give the presentation more consistency.
You can probably summarise the method for IVF in a line or two. You mentioned their uses, but in biology, we are more interested in the mechanism, like you did with ICSI and GIFT

Level of analysis

Overall
It is easy to understand the new concepts described.
Provided good and reliable sources
Good presentation throughout.
One thing to avoid is not to allow your opinions to creep into your essay, as you did with "People and governments alike ogten criticize on the subject of same-sex marriage, with topics such as religious and human rights!". Try to maintain a neutral point of view.
Good conclusion that sums up what you said in the report

Quality of writing


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by superwiseman 07/03/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Prepuce (foreskin) The Prepuce is a loose double-layered fold of skin and mucos membrane that covers the glans penis. It protects the urinary meatus when the penis is not erect. Prostate The prostate or prostate gland is walnut-sized and is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Reproduction, Gamete formation and fertilisation

    4 star(s)

    The spermatids finally develop into ripe sperm with long tails. Thousands of sperm are produced every second, each taking about two months to mature. http://www.infertilitybooks.com/onlinebooks/malpani/images/04b_sperm_cell.jpg http://webanatomy.net/histology/reproductive/seminiferous_tubule.jpg Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the female reproductive organs are sited entirely inside the body.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Cell Membrane

    3 star(s)

    the water expands the cholesterol, glycoproteins and phospholipids, which apply pressure on the membrane from the inside. The protein structure and the membrane is denatured and hence increases the surface permeability. All this suggests that high temperatures will allow the molecules to shake and vibrate more frequently.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    But learning about how the body functions, giving insulin injections, controlling diet and measuring the blood glucose levels, will help to restore family life and the child's life, back to normal. The healthcare teams at the children's wards can teach you about these areas.

  1. Effect of Caffeine on the Heart Rate of Daphnia

    This is the concentration at which 50% of the organisms die when exposed to that concentration. * Thus, the concentration of the caffeine solution used in this experiment must not exceed the 182mg/L of water. Use a transfer pipette to pick up an individual Daphnia, and transfer it to the Petri dish.

  2. The mechanism of Negative feedback.

    The osmoreceptors are now less stimulated thatn before. This causes less hormone to be produced, less water is reabsorbed by the kidney, and a more copious and dilute urine is produced. This causes the solute concentration of the blood to rise.

  1. The Endocrine System

    Hormones act by regulating cell metabolism. By accelerating, slowing, or maintaining enzyme activity in receptor cells, hormones control growth and development, metabolic rate, sexual rhythms, and reproduction. Hormones are naturally occurring substances secreted by specialised cells that affect the metabolism or behaviour of other cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone.

  2. The Skeletal and Muscular System

    Foods rich in minerals such as calcium and phosphorous, which are the main components of the bone, are essential for bones to be strong. For instance, such as rickets in children. The following are bone conditions that are caused by poor diet: a.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work