• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Introduction for the effect of bile concentration on the hydrolysis of lipids in milk

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim:- To investigate how the concentration of bile affects the rate of hydrolysis of lipids in milk digestions to fatty acids and glycerol Introduction The input variable for my experiment will be the different concentrations of bile. This has a direct effect on the digestion of fat in milk. The output variable for the experiment will be the measure of rate of drop in pH due to the hydrolysis of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. I am going to carry out an experiment to observe the effect of bile concentration on the hydrolysis of fat. I will be varying the concentration of bile by diluting the concentration with water. I will monitor the breakdown of fat using a pH probe. When fat is broken down, the pH of the whole solution will decrease. Concentration (%) Bile (cm�) Water (cm�) 100 5 0 80 4 1 60 3 2 40 2 3 20 1 4 0 0 0 Bile Bile is a greenish ...read more.

Middle

Lipase can be found in two places- the duodenum (secreted by the pancreatic juice from the pancreas) and the stomach (secreted from the gastric glands). The optimum pH for the lipase in the stomach is 4.0 - 5.0 and in the pancreas it is around 8. Lipase is water soluble; therefore it can increase the surface area of the lipids so that it can come to contact with the lipids. Triglyceride Triglycerides, a type of lipid, are made from three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule condensed together. It is insoluble in water but can be soluble in some certain solvents, such as ethanol and chloroform. This is due to the long hydrocarbon tails present on the fatty acids. The functions of triglycerides include acting as an insulator to the body to prevent heat loss. Also, it is used for storage in some parts of the body. ...read more.

Conclusion

Enzymes are globular proteins, which is coiled into a tertiary structure. The enzymes have a region called active site, in which a substrate molecule comes and binds into and is then released as two or more products. The joining of the substrate into the active site of the enzyme occurs through two methods, the induced fit theory and the lock and key theory. Induced fit theory is when the active site of the enzyme slightly changes its shape in order for the substrate to fit in. The lock and key theory is when both the substrate and the enzyme's active site are specific. In the following page there are two diagrams of the lock and key theory and the induced fit theory. For the substrate to be converted to products it has to have energy, this energy is called activation energy. One way to increase the activation energy is by heating them. By this more kinetic energy is provided to the enzyme and the substrate ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of Duckweeds

    5 star(s)

    The no. of fronds increases from the initial 8 fronds to an optimum average of 32 fronds, so this concentration aided the maximum growth through out investigation. As there is the correct amount of nitrates and solutes outside the root cells, this gives a favourable water potential value outside the cell.

  2. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Subsequently the substrate molecule is held in place with the active site by bonds formed temporarily between the R groups of the amino acids of the active site and the groups on the substrate molecule until the products are made from the substrate molecule.

  1. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    This allows digestion to occur efficiently near to the area where the products need to be absorbed. As lipases are soluble and work on insoluble substrates, they must work in emulsions at the oil-water interface. However, as the substrate is in equilibrium with the emulsion and oil state, the rate

  2. Investigate the effect of changing the sugar concentration on the rate of respiration of ...

    I realised I needed 5 results in order to plot a suitable graph so I would maybe increase each step at certain intervals throughout my 0% to 20% concentrations range.

  1. Investigating how prolonged exposure to its optimum temperature affects the respiration of yeast.

    While this is perfectly acceptable, since a thermometer was used, which would be fairly accurate, it did mean that during the experiment taking place that the operator would have to reheat it if it fell towards temperature of the room, which it certainly would do.

  2. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    It is secreted in an inactive form and activated by trypsin. Lipase Lipids Fatty acids and glycerol Catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids. Pancreatic amylase Starch (amylose) Maltose Catalysis the breakdown of amylose to maltose. Table from a handout called Human Nutrition.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    The Function of the Pleural The pleural cavity prevents friction between the two layers during the respiration. Reference: http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/cancer_images/Mesolung.gif http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Topics/Respiratory_Components.htm Website viewed on 21/5/08 How Does the Blood Travel to and From the Lungs? The pulmonary circulation is the movement of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back.

  2. the Effect of Copper Ions on a

    Preliminary Experiment Apparatus * Bacterial amylase solution 0.2M, 100cm3 * Starch solution 0.1M, 100cm3 * Copper sulphate solution 0.1M, 25cm3 * Iodine solution 1.0M, 25cm3 * 3 10cm3 syringes * 9 test tubes (3 for amylase, 3 for starch and 3 for the CuSO4 concentrations)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work