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Introduction for the effect of bile concentration on the hydrolysis of lipids in milk

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Introduction

Aim:- To investigate how the concentration of bile affects the rate of hydrolysis of lipids in milk digestions to fatty acids and glycerol Introduction The input variable for my experiment will be the different concentrations of bile. This has a direct effect on the digestion of fat in milk. The output variable for the experiment will be the measure of rate of drop in pH due to the hydrolysis of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. I am going to carry out an experiment to observe the effect of bile concentration on the hydrolysis of fat. I will be varying the concentration of bile by diluting the concentration with water. I will monitor the breakdown of fat using a pH probe. When fat is broken down, the pH of the whole solution will decrease. Concentration (%) Bile (cm�) Water (cm�) 100 5 0 80 4 1 60 3 2 40 2 3 20 1 4 0 0 0 Bile Bile is a greenish ...read more.

Middle

Lipase can be found in two places- the duodenum (secreted by the pancreatic juice from the pancreas) and the stomach (secreted from the gastric glands). The optimum pH for the lipase in the stomach is 4.0 - 5.0 and in the pancreas it is around 8. Lipase is water soluble; therefore it can increase the surface area of the lipids so that it can come to contact with the lipids. Triglyceride Triglycerides, a type of lipid, are made from three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule condensed together. It is insoluble in water but can be soluble in some certain solvents, such as ethanol and chloroform. This is due to the long hydrocarbon tails present on the fatty acids. The functions of triglycerides include acting as an insulator to the body to prevent heat loss. Also, it is used for storage in some parts of the body. ...read more.

Conclusion

Enzymes are globular proteins, which is coiled into a tertiary structure. The enzymes have a region called active site, in which a substrate molecule comes and binds into and is then released as two or more products. The joining of the substrate into the active site of the enzyme occurs through two methods, the induced fit theory and the lock and key theory. Induced fit theory is when the active site of the enzyme slightly changes its shape in order for the substrate to fit in. The lock and key theory is when both the substrate and the enzyme's active site are specific. In the following page there are two diagrams of the lock and key theory and the induced fit theory. For the substrate to be converted to products it has to have energy, this energy is called activation energy. One way to increase the activation energy is by heating them. By this more kinetic energy is provided to the enzyme and the substrate ...read more.

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