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Investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures, and therefore to find the optimum temperature that amylase digests starch.

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Introduction

Investigating Amylase. Aim: The aim of the experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures, and therefore to find the optimum temperature that amylase digests starch. Introduction: Thousands of chemical reactions take place in our cells and those reactions need to happen quickly in order to keep us active. These chemicals are called ENZYMES. Enzymes make reactions happen at a much faster rate. Enzymes come in two main types, breakers and builders. Breaker-enzymes break down large molecules into smaller molecules. Builder enzymes join small molecules together to make large molecules. The builder enzyme does this reaction quicker. Enzymes work on substances called substrates. This reaction takes place on the surface of the enzyme which is called the Active Site. Enzymes break down large food molecules into smaller molecules, this happens inside your gut. This is called Digestion. Carbohydrates can only break down carbohydrates, to make sugars. Proteases can only break down proteins, to make amino acids. Lipases break down fats, to make fatty acids and glycerol Enzymes have five important properties: 1. They are all proteins. 2. Each enzyme controls one particular reaction. 3. They can be used again and again. 4. They are affected by temperature. 5. They are affected by Ph. The information was from 'Encarta 98' and 'Biology For You' - by Gareth Williams Background knowledge (facts): Chemicals changed by enzymes catalysed reactions are called ...read more.

Middle

For the Experiment you will need: - Stop clock - Amylase Solution - Pipette - Starch Solution - Dimple tray - Iodine solution - Heat proof mat - Gauze - Beakers - 2 test tubes - Thermometer - Tripod -Bunsen Burners Safety: The safety aspects fro this investigation it's very similar to other experiments which include boiling. Goggles are needed so that none of the chemicals used can be splashed into your eyes and damage them. Hair needs to be tied up so that it dose not catch on fire. Gloves/Tongs hot equipments needs to be handled with care and to be protect yourself from getting burnt. Bunsen burner should not be used on a blue flame when not in use. Chemicals should be used with care; any spilt chemicals should be cleaned away in the most appropriate way. (Iodine X ) Loose clothes, need to be taken of before the experiment is taken place. Fair test: To make it a fair test: * Ensure that exactly 200cm� of water is in the water bath each time the experiment is done. * Make sure that the temperature stays at 20�C, and is constant for each individual experiment. * Make sure that 1cm� of amylase is in tube B. * Exactly 5cm� of starch solution is used in test tube A * Start the stop clock as soon as test tube A is mixed with test tube B. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would have to see a strong rise in the line of best fit for there to be enough evidence to say that 60�c is the optimum temperature. In this graph it shows all the average times from both experiments. From this graph I have the information that 40�c is the optimum temperature. I am very confident that it is 40�c because from both experiments it has been 40�c that has been the optimum temperature. On the second experiment I wasn't very clear but on the rest of the experiments it was. On the first experiment that I did, it showed very clearly that 40�c was the optimum temperature. On the first experiment the line of best fit was very good and showed a clear pattern in what was happening when raising the temperature. Drawing Conclusion The results were as I predicted in my prediction. In my prediction I said that 30�c - 40�c would be the optimum temperature because the amylase would work best at body temperature. Evaluation I have found out that 40�c is the optimum temperature for amylase to digest starch. If I were to do this experiment again I would use a colorimeter because it would be more efficient and would tell me exactly how much starch was in the iodine solution. I would also expand the range of temperatures that I would use. I only went up 70�c in this experiment because I thought the optimum temperature was quite low. I was right in my prediction. Krishma Kainth 10CCH ...read more.

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