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Investigate stretching using Hooke's Law.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

We have been asked to investigate stretching using Hooke’s Law. Before actually planning the experiment, I will do some research to find out about Hooke’s Law, and matters related to it, so that I can make predictions. And figure out away to make this investigation fair and safe.

KNOWLEDGE

Hooke’s law states that: -

“If you stretch something with a steadily increasing force, then the length will increase steadily too”.

However Hooke’s law isn’t all to do with stretching, it is to do with the Extension also. Extension is the increase in length compared to the original length with no force applied. For the majority of the materials, the extension will be proportional to the load.

Forces can change the motion or shape of an object. An object that regains its original shape when the force is removed it is said to be elastic. For example, a rubber band that is stretched and then released usually returns to its original length. Rubber is an example of material that possesses elasticity.

You can change the shape of a material by applying enough force. When you stop applying the force, some materials retain their new shapes; these are plastic materials. Other materials return to their old shape when you stop applying the force; these are elastic materials.

When you pull an elastic material, it stretches — increases in length.

...read more.

Middle

232mm

0.5N

251.5mm

19.5mm

232mm

1.0N

272.5mm

40.5mm

232mm

1.5N

293mm

61mm

232mm

2.0N

314mm

82mm

232mm

2.5N

334mm

102mm

232mm

3.0N

355mm

123mm

232mm

3.5N

378mm

146mm

232mm

4.0N

395.5mm

163.5mm

232mm

4.5N

420.5mm

188.5mm

232mm

5.0N

437mm

205mm

232mm

5.5N

460mm

228mm

232mm

6.0N

477.5mm

245.5mm

232mm

6.5N

498.5mm

266.5mm

232mm

7.0N

520mm

288mm

232mm

7.5N

540mm

308mm

232mm

8.0N

561mm

329mm

232mm

8.5N

581mm

349mm

232mm

9.0N

604.5mm

372.5mm

232mm

9.5N

622.5mm

390.5mm

232mm

10N

643.5mm

411.5mm

RUBBER BAND 1ST TEST

Original Length

Weight Applied

New Length

Extension

75mm

0.5N

77mm

2mm

75mm

1.0N

80mm

5mm

75mm

1.5N

84mm

9mm

75mm

2.0N

88mm

13mm

75mm

2.5N

94mm

19mm

75mm

3.0N

104mm

29mm

75mm

3.5N

111mm

36mm

75mm

4.0N

113mm

38mm

75mm

4.5N

122mm

47mm

75mm

5.0N

133mm

58mm

75mm

5.5N

144mm

69mm

75mm

6.0N

156mm

78mm

75mm

6.5N

170mm

95mm

75mm

7.0N

180mm

105mm

75mm

7.5N

192mm

117mm

75mm

8.0N

204mm

129mm

75mm

8.5N

212mm

137mm

75mm

9.0N

229mm

154mm

75mm

9.5N

241mm

166mm

75mm

10N

251mm

176mm

RUBERBAND 2ND TEST

Original Length

Weight Applied

New Length

Extension

79mm

0.5N

81mm

2mm

79mm

1.0N

84mm

5mm

79mm

1.5N

88mm

9mm

79mm

2.0N

95mm

16mm

79mm

2.5N

102mm

23mm

79mm

3.0N

108mm

29mm

79mm

3.5N

117mm

38mm

79mm

4.0N

125mm

46mm

79mm

4.5N

136mm

57mm

79mm

5.0N

148mm

69mm

79mm

5.5N

160mm

81mm

79mm

6.0N

163mm

84mm

79mm

6.5N

175mm

96mm

79mm

7.0N

191mm

112mm

79mm

7.5N

201mm

122mm

79mm

8.0N

212mm

133mm

79mm

8.5N

...read more.

Conclusion


1. As molecules are pushed together, the larger the push the stronger the resistance.

2. At this point Hooke’s law of proportionality can be applied.

3. At this stage the effect of force becomes less until the spring yields and separates

(breaks).

The results I have gathered are reasonably reliable and accurate and as can be seen in the first experiment graph all of the results were very close to the line of best fit. The second experiment with the rubber band however, shows us that its elastic limit wasn’t achieved. The Elastic Material however achieved its elastic limit when it got to around about 3.5N.

In the test there were no significant anomalous results. In terms of reliability the experiment was carried out 2 times for each material, and then an average was taken out, from each of the materials tested.


In conclusion I am pleased with my results and feel they support each other as well as the laws they were based on. However if the experiment were to be carried out again changes could be made to reduce experimental error. A pointer on the spring would help in gathering the information more accurately. If the measurements were to be taken even more accurately an ultra sonic measuring device to measure the extension to a very accurate degree. I conclude to say that my prediction was correct on the basis that the spring obeys Hooke’s Law and that the Elastic material and rubber band does not do so.  

...read more.

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