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# Investigate stretching using Hooke's Law.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

## INTRODUCTION

We have been asked to investigate stretching using Hooke’s Law. Before actually planning the experiment, I will do some research to find out about Hooke’s Law, and matters related to it, so that I can make predictions. And figure out away to make this investigation fair and safe.

KNOWLEDGE

Hooke’s law states that: -

“If you stretch something with a steadily increasing force, then the length will increase steadily too”.

However Hooke’s law isn’t all to do with stretching, it is to do with the Extension also. Extension is the increase in length compared to the original length with no force applied. For the majority of the materials, the extension will be proportional to the load.

Forces can change the motion or shape of an object. An object that regains its original shape when the force is removed it is said to be elastic. For example, a rubber band that is stretched and then released usually returns to its original length. Rubber is an example of material that possesses elasticity.

You can change the shape of a material by applying enough force. When you stop applying the force, some materials retain their new shapes; these are plastic materials. Other materials return to their old shape when you stop applying the force; these are elastic materials.

When you pull an elastic material, it stretches — increases in length.

...read more.

Middle

232mm

0.5N

251.5mm

19.5mm

232mm

1.0N

272.5mm

40.5mm

232mm

1.5N

293mm

61mm

232mm

2.0N

314mm

82mm

232mm

2.5N

334mm

102mm

232mm

3.0N

355mm

123mm

232mm

3.5N

378mm

146mm

232mm

4.0N

395.5mm

163.5mm

232mm

4.5N

420.5mm

188.5mm

232mm

5.0N

437mm

205mm

232mm

5.5N

460mm

228mm

232mm

6.0N

477.5mm

245.5mm

232mm

6.5N

498.5mm

266.5mm

232mm

7.0N

520mm

288mm

232mm

7.5N

540mm

308mm

232mm

8.0N

561mm

329mm

232mm

8.5N

581mm

349mm

232mm

9.0N

604.5mm

372.5mm

232mm

9.5N

622.5mm

390.5mm

232mm

10N

643.5mm

411.5mm

RUBBER BAND 1ST TEST

 Original Length Weight Applied New Length Extension 75mm 0.5N 77mm 2mm 75mm 1.0N 80mm 5mm 75mm 1.5N 84mm 9mm 75mm 2.0N 88mm 13mm 75mm 2.5N 94mm 19mm 75mm 3.0N 104mm 29mm 75mm 3.5N 111mm 36mm 75mm 4.0N 113mm 38mm 75mm 4.5N 122mm 47mm 75mm 5.0N 133mm 58mm 75mm 5.5N 144mm 69mm 75mm 6.0N 156mm 78mm 75mm 6.5N 170mm 95mm 75mm 7.0N 180mm 105mm 75mm 7.5N 192mm 117mm 75mm 8.0N 204mm 129mm 75mm 8.5N 212mm 137mm 75mm 9.0N 229mm 154mm 75mm 9.5N 241mm 166mm 75mm 10N 251mm 176mm

RUBERBAND 2ND TEST

 Original Length Weight Applied New Length Extension 79mm 0.5N 81mm 2mm 79mm 1.0N 84mm 5mm 79mm 1.5N 88mm 9mm 79mm 2.0N 95mm 16mm 79mm 2.5N 102mm 23mm 79mm 3.0N 108mm 29mm 79mm 3.5N 117mm 38mm 79mm 4.0N 125mm 46mm 79mm 4.5N 136mm 57mm 79mm 5.0N 148mm 69mm 79mm 5.5N 160mm 81mm 79mm 6.0N 163mm 84mm 79mm 6.5N 175mm 96mm 79mm 7.0N 191mm 112mm 79mm 7.5N 201mm 122mm 79mm 8.0N 212mm 133mm 79mm 8.5N
...read more.

Conclusion

1. As molecules are pushed together, the larger the push the stronger the resistance.

2. At this point Hooke’s law of proportionality can be applied.

3. At this stage the effect of force becomes less until the spring yields and separates

(breaks).

The results I have gathered are reasonably reliable and accurate and as can be seen in the first experiment graph all of the results were very close to the line of best fit. The second experiment with the rubber band however, shows us that its elastic limit wasn’t achieved. The Elastic Material however achieved its elastic limit when it got to around about 3.5N.

In the test there were no significant anomalous results. In terms of reliability the experiment was carried out 2 times for each material, and then an average was taken out, from each of the materials tested.

In conclusion I am pleased with my results and feel they support each other as well as the laws they were based on. However if the experiment were to be carried out again changes could be made to reduce experimental error. A pointer on the spring would help in gathering the information more accurately. If the measurements were to be taken even more accurately an ultra sonic measuring device to measure the extension to a very accurate degree. I conclude to say that my prediction was correct on the basis that the spring obeys Hooke’s Law and that the Elastic material and rubber band does not do so.

...read more.

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