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Investigate the factors that affect the energy released during reactions between metals and acids.

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Introduction

Investigate the factors that affect the energy released during reactions between metals and acids Introduction Introduction The experiment we will use for this investigation is as follows: - There are a number of factors that can affect the amount of energy released during this experiment. These include: - 1. Mass of magnesium used 2. Concentration of acid used 3. Surface area of magnesium Mass of magnesium The more magnesium that is present in the reaction, the more collisions there will be. This should increase the effectiveness of the reaction. The better the reaction that takes place between the magnesium atoms and the hydrochloric acid, the more energy that will be released. Concentration of acid used The more concentrated the acid, the more energy that will be released. If the acid is a low concentration, the acid particles will be widely spread in the water, and the number of collisions should be less giving out less energy. At higher concentrations however, the chances of a collision is greater and more energy should be released. This also explains why the greatest amount of energy is lost at the start of the reaction, when the reactants are mixed. As the reaction proceeds, eventually the temperature will decrease as the reaction is coming to completion. And therefore energy will be dissipated into the surrounds. Surface area When one of the reactants is a solid e.g. magnesium ribbon, the ribbon will float on the surface. ...read more.

Middle

Measure out 0.1g of magnesium turnings. Do the same for each result until 0.6g 3. Pierce a whole in the card and slide thermometer in, this will act as a rest and will make sure heat doesn't escape into the surroundings. 4. Add the 25cm3 of HCL into the polystyrene cup 5. Add the magnesium to the HCL. 6. Quickly bring down the thermometer in the card to ensure minimal heat loss (most heat given off at the start of reaction) 7. Record the temperature increase **Do the same for magnesium ribbon but measure 0.5cm of it until 3cm and record results** How to keep this experiment fair In order to keep this experiment fair it should be taken on the same day, as the room temperature is never completely constant and a slight temperature increase or decrease on a different day could affect my results. I also have to keep the amount of acid constant as the factor I have chosen to change is the mass of magnesium. Another point I have to be sure of is that I don't dip the thermometer in the HCL when it is reacting with the magnesium, as heat rises and I would not get fair results Safety In order to keep this experiment fair I have to follow these safety points o Take care while using acid in the classroom as the acid can irritate skin. o Wear goggles to protect eyes from acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

Further work There are few different ways in which I could change this experiment in order to get more accurate or a different range of results. I believe that within the experiment itself that if we put the magnesium in the polystyrene cup before adding the acid that it would be more precise. And also less energy in the form of heat would be lost. I believe this would be a good idea without changing the experiments properties. Another way would be to change the factor I would be looking at from the mass of magnesium to the concentration of acid. In this experiment my prediction would be that as there is a higher concentration of acid there will be more energy dissipated into the surroundings in the form of heat. This is a very similar way of doing the experiment but I believe that it would give different results maybe more accurate as the mass of magnesium would be constant. I can also find one problem with this and that is there will be a waste of acid. I would need about ten different concentrations, and to make this there would have to be some left over. Also the concentration would be getting too high to deal with in a school laboratory and it wouldn't be safe. Again we could look at trying more masses of magnesium, but as seen in the experiment so enough we would have the maximum temperature rise if we went too high and we would not be able to record them. This along with doing more in between masses would be a waste of acid. ...read more.

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