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Investigate the rate of reaction of amylase, when added to starch.

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Introduction

Biology Coursework Plan In this experiment I will investigate the rate of reaction of amylase, when added to starch. Variables I will investigate how the rate of reaction increases with temperature. I will keep these other factors constant, for fairer testing: > Concentration of Amylase > Concentration of Starch > pH I will keep the concentrations constant by only using starch or amylase from the same container. I will moniter the pH with universal indicator paper. Prediction/Theory I predict that the rate of reaction will be proportional to the temperature, until approximately 40�C. This is because enzymes are essentially protein-based catalysts. They bind with the reactants very closely, thus reducing the activation energy level needed for the reaction to occur. The activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be present, when the reactants meet for the reaction to occur. The area where the reaction takes place is called the active site. The protein molecules form a shape that the molecules of the other reactants must fit into, like a lock. When an enzyme is denatured (they are made from proteins), the activation site becomes warped, and so the reaction will not take place, as the molecules cannot properly meet there. The proteins in the salivary amylase enzyme denature at around 40�C, just over body temperature. ...read more.

Middle

Obtaining Evidence This is a copy of the raw results I recorded during the experiment: Temp. 20 30 40 Time Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 0 Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black 30 Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black 60 Blue/Black Black/Brown Black/Brown Blue/Black Black/Brown Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black 90 Dark Brown Blue/Black Dark Brown Blue/Black Dark Brown Blue/Black Dark Brown Dark Brown Blue/Black 120 Dark Brown Blue/Black Dark Brown Dark Brown Dark Brown Dark Brown Dark Brown Brown Dark Brown 150 Brown Dark Brown Dark Brown Brown Brown Dark Brown Brown Light Brown Brown 180 Light Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Light Brown Light Brown Light Brown 210 Light Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Light Brown Light Brown Light Brown 240 Light Brown Light Brown Brown Orange Brown Brown Orange Orange Orange 270 Orange Light Brown Light Brown Light Brown Light Brown Light Brown Orange Orange Orange 300 Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange 330 Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Temp. 50 60 Time Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 0 Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black 30 Blue/Black Blue/Black Black/Brown Blue/Black Black/Brown Blue/Black 60 Dark Brown Black/Brown Black/Brown Blue/Black Blue/Black Blue/Black 90 Dark Brown Dark Brown Dark ...read more.

Conclusion

I think this factor was the main one in causing anomalous points. * I should have taken a new pipette full of solution at each reading. * Several errors may have occurred from me judging the colour changes; it was improbable that I managed to stop the experiment at exactly the same shade of orange each time. * I could have used a colourimeter to judge the colours. * A digital stopclock was used, eliminating parallax errors * The temperature may not at have been exactly what it was supposed to be at. * I checked the temperature before and after the experiment, but few errors occurred. * It was difficult to add the solution at precisely the right time. * Two people could have done the experiment together, eliminating all the tasks you have to do at the start. * The test tubes may have contained impurities before the experiment started. * This is unlikely, but I could have washed them in distilled water. There were some anomalous points in my results, but the results matched my prediction, and the theoretical results obtained from the internet. The experiment proved that enzymes increase the rate of reaction of substances, and do so with greater efficiency proportional to temperature, until they begin to denature. The anomalous points in my graph did not quite fit in with the smooth lines of the curves, but the one at 40 centigrade, emphasises the effect of correct heat for the enzymes to work in. Thomas Burton ...read more.

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