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Investigating how concentration affects the rate of a reaction between Calcium Carbonate and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Nathan Hind 10C Chemistry I am investigating how concentration affects the rate of a reaction between Calcium Carbonate and hydrochloric acid. In this experiment the concentration of the acid is the independent variable and the volume of gas produced is the dependent variable because the gas being produced is dependent on the concentration of acid. The equation for this experiment is: - Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid ==> Carbon dioxide + Calcium chloride For the experiment I used: - * 2 100ml measuring cylinders * Washing up bowl * Stopwatch * Beaker * Collection tube * 4 different molar solutions * Water to act as seal on measuring cylinder * 6-9 mm calcium carbonate chips * Electronic scales * Bung to prevent gas leak Fair Test To keep the test fair I will use the same mass of calcium carbonate chips in every experiment making sure they are all roughly the same size. I will use the same volume acid each time and I will try to keep the measuring cylinder as close to 90? as possible without pressing down on the collection tube. ...read more.

Middle

4cm� 20s 8cm� 20s 6cm� 20s 7cm� 30s 10cm� 30s 10cm� 30s 10cm� 40s 14cm� 40s 13cm� 40s 14cm� 50s 16cm� 50s 16cm� 50s 16cm� 60s 22cm� 60s 20cm� 60s 21cm� 70s 23cm� 70s 24cm� 70s 23cm� 80s 25cm� 80s 28cm� 80s 26cm� 90s 27cm� 90s 30cm� 90s 29cm� 100s 29cm� 100s 32cm� 100s 31cm� 110s 31cm� 110s 35cm� 110s 33cm� 120s 34cm� 120s 38cm� 120s 36cm� 130s 38cm� 130s 40cm� 130s 41cm� 140s 41cm� 140s 44cm� 140s 43cm� 150s 44cm� 150s 46cm� 150s 45cm� 160s 47cm� 160s 50cm� 160s 48cm� 170s 50cm� 170s 53cm� 170s 52cm� 180s 53cm� 180s 57cm� 180s 55cm� 1.0m 1.0m 1.0m average Time Gas produced Time Gas produced Time Gas produced 10s 4cm� 10s 1cm� 10s 3cm� 20s 8cm� 20s 5cm� 20s 7cm� 30s 16cm� 30s 11cm� 30s 14cm� 40s 22cm� 40s 18cm� 40s 20cm� 50s 28cm� 50s 26cm� 50s 27cm� 60s 34cm� 60s 33cm� 60s 34cm� 70s 38cm� 70s 40cm� 70s 39cm� 80s 44cm� 80s 44 cm� 80s 44 cm� 90s 49cm� 90s 47 cm� 90s 48 cm� 100s 52cm� 100s 53 cm� 100s 53 cm� 110s 58cm� 110s 60 cm� 110s 59 cm� 120s 62cm� 120s 63 cm� 120s 63 cm� 130s 68cm� 130s 72 ...read more.

Conclusion

The more concentrated the faster the rate (in some cases the rate may be unaffected by the concentration of a particular reactant provided it is present at a minimum concentration. * Temperature. Usually reactions speed up with increasing temperature ("100C rise doubles rate"). * Physical state of reactants. Powders react faster than blocks - because they have a greater surface area and since the reaction occurs at the surface we get a faster rate. * The presence (and concentration/physical form) of a catalyst (or inhibitor). A catalyst speeds up a reaction, an inhibitor slows it down. * Light. Light of a particular wavelength may also speed up a reaction. My results were a good match as I was very careful to make sure I had all the correct measurements and shaped calcium carbonate chips. The one anomaly was probably due to an inhabiter, which slowed the reaction down quite a lot. Further work I could do to provide additional relevant evidence to back up the experiment is use a greater molar value of acid to see if the results would match the results that I currently have. I could use a different size calcium carbonate chip possibly have the size of the ones I used to see if the experiment would go twice as fast. ...read more.

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