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Investigating respiration of maggots

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating respiration of maggots By Osman Khan Lee 13 Aim The aim of my investigation is to see how the rate of respiration of some maggots differs between room temperature and other temperatures, in terms of volume of oxygen produced. Simple Prediction I predict that as I raise the temperature of the maggots, the rate of respiration will increase. I think this because respiration is an enzyme-dependant process of reactions. Increasing the temperature will give the enzymes and substrates more kinetic energy and therefore will increase the rate of respiration. This is explained in further detail later on. Method 1. Using a syringe filled with manometer fluid, I will half fill a manometer. 2. I will then attach a 3-way tap to one of the delivery tubes on the bung and to this tap I will attach a syringe. 3. Next I will put 2g of soda lime in the bottom of each of the two boiling tubes, and will then place a gauze into each, which will rest slightly above the soda lime. 4. I shall then weigh some maggots using some measuring scales, and then put these into one of the boiling tubes, ensuring that none come into contact with the soda lime. After doing this I will place another gauze on top of the maggots to prevent them climbing up the tube. 5. I will then connect this boiling tube up with the manometer, as shown in the diagram. 6. I will then putt some glass beads into the other boiling tube and also connect this to the manometer. After doing this I will attach a screw-clip to the boiling tube delivery tube. 7. I will then, if necessary, use a clamp to hold the boiling tubes in place. During this time I will leave the three-way tap and screw-clip open to allow the maggots to acclimatise to their new environment for approximately 10 minutes. ...read more.

Middle

These are detailed below: - I will be using a syringe to insert the manometer fluid into the manometer, which can easily cut you and injure someone. Therefore I will make sure that I cover the needle back up when I have finished using it. This will provide a safe working environment. - Soda Lime is corrosive so I must ensure it does not come into contact with my skin. Therefore I will use a spatula when I need to remove some from the bottle. If I do come into contact with any I will immediately wash my hands thoroughly. - There is a lot of glassware in my experiment so I will make sure I am careful when using them. If I do drop something I will clear the glass up using a dustpan and brush, whilst making sure I don't touch any of the shattered pieces of glass. - Finally I will be using a water bath at temperature up to 60 degrees Celsius. I will therefore have to work carefully and if I do burn myself I will immediately rinse my hand under cold water. Preliminary Results Temperature Reading Mass of Maggots Mass of Soda Lime Cumulative Distance bubble moves (mm) after each minute (Degrees Celsius) (g) (g) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Room 1 5.2 2.0 7.0 14.0 21.0 28.0 34.0 39.0 Temperature 2 5.2 2.0 6.0 12.0 17.0 23.0 30.0 36.0 3 5.2 2.0 4.0 10.0 16.0 24.0 31.0 37.0 Average 5.2 2.0 5.7 12.0 18.0 25.0 31.7 37.3 35 1 5.0 2.0 9.0 18.0 27.0 37.0 46.0 55.0 2 5.0 2.0 11.0 21.0 30.0 37.0 45.0 53.0 3 5.0 2.0 11.0 22.0 31.0 41.0 49.0 57.0 Average 5.0 2.0 10.3 20.3 29.3 38.3 46.7 55.0 Temperature Average Cumulative Volume of Oxygen Produced per minute per gram (mm3 min-1 g-1) Value of Pi 3.141592654 (Degree Celsius) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Radius of manometer (mm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

there is a higher average kinetic energy of each particle. There is a much higher proportion of molecules with greater than 50kg mol-1, which means more collisions will be successful enough for a reaction to occur. Therefore increasing the temperature will raise the average kinetic energy of the reactants, which will enable a larger number of reactions to occur. This is why think raising the temperature will increase the rate of respiration. However raising the temperature too far will cause the enzyme to become denatured. This means the bonds holding the tertiary structure of the enzyme together will be overcome, and the active site will have altered in shape. As a result the temporary bonds that occur between the substrate and the enzyme cannot form. This would therefore cause the enzyme to become of no use so the reaction progress will decrease and eventually stop. Rate of Reaction Temperature The diagram above summarises how the overall reaction rate varies with temperature. At a low temperature the substrate and enzyme have less kinetic energy so their collisions are weak and generally insufficient to overcome the activation energy. When the temperature is raised, however, their kinetic energy increases so there is a higher likelihood the enzyme-substrate complex can be formed. The rate will then eventually peak, which is known as the optimum rate. The rate will then begin to decrease when the temperature is too high. This is because many of the bonds holding the tertiary structure together will break (e.g. hydrogen bonds and ionic being weak will break but disulphide bridges which are strong covalent bonds may not break), and more and more enzymes will become denatured. The diagram below shows a rough representation of how the structure of the enzyme, in particular the active site, changes when it becomes denatured and why it is not able to work. 1 Diagram taken from Biology 1 Advanced Sciences page 42 by Mary Jones, Richard Fosbery and Dennis Taylor Diagram taken from Salters Advanced Chemistry: Chemical Ideas 10.2 page 225 Osman Khan Lee 13 Page 1 / 22 ...read more.

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A very detailed and well written account of the investigation. The author has an excellent understanding of relevant background theory and explains the reasons for choices of apparatus and steps followed clearly. Data is presented in tables and graphs without errors.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 05/09/2013

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