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Investigating the break down of Hydrogen Peroxide using catalyst

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Introduction

Investigating the break down of Hydrogen Peroxide using catalyst PLAN: Aim: To investigate the rate at which hydrogen peroxide is broken down by the enzyme catalyst by measuring the volume of oxygen produced. Variables: Catalyst is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The factors that affect the activity of catalyst are: � Hydrogen peroxide concentration � Substrate concentration � Temperature � PH The variable chosen to investigate is the concentration of the substrate Hydrogen Peroxide. The other variables will have to remain the same to ensure that it is a fair test. Scientific knowledge: Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts; they speed up the rate of a chemical reaction whilst remaining chemically unchanged them. Enzymes are among the most powerful catalysts, and play an essential role in living organisms, where they accelerate reactions that would otherwise require temperatures that would destroy most of the organic matter. Enzymes are made of proteins, in their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. If the shapes do not match exactly, the enzyme and substrate will not react. This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction. When the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. Collision theory Collision theory is used to predict the rates of chemical reactions, particularly for gases. The collision theory is based on the assumption that for a reaction to occur it is necessary for the reacting atoms or molecules to come together or collide with one another. Not all collisions, however, bring about chemical change. A collision will be effective in producing chemical change only if the atoms or molecules brought together possess a certain minimum value of internal energy, equal to the activation energy of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

* The pH level will not be altered because the same solution will be used. * None of the solutions will be stirred and they will all use the same apparatus. * The equipment should be kept the same to ensure all results are taken without any advantages or disadvantages. * The Catalyst will be kept covered as much as possible and will only make contact with the Hydrogen Peroxide when the stopwatch is started. * The different concentrations will all be timed for 1 minute. To insure the test is as reliable as possible the experiment will be repeated three times for each of the varying concentrations. To make sure the experiment is carried out safely and fairly safety goggles will be worn, as Hydrogen Peroxide can be dangerous if it gets into your eyes. All laboratory surfaces will be cleared and other lab rules must be followed. METHOD: To carry out the experiment the apparatus will be set out as shown By taking three repeat readings of the experiment it will mean that in my results I can use the average number, which will help make my results more accurate. It also increases the efficiency of my results. 1. Wear goggles. 2. 10cm3 of the catalyst solution was measured into a chronicle flask. 3. 10cm� hydrogen peroxide concentration 5/5 was added. 4. The bung was firmly pushed on top. 5. The delivery tube led to the burette, already filled with distilled water. 6. The reaction was timed for 1 minute. 7. The volume of gas produced was recorded. 8. The reacted Catalyst solution and hydrogen peroxide were safely disposed of. The experiment was repeated 3 times for each of the following concentrations 5/5, 4/6, 3/7, 2/8, 1/9. Obtaining evidence Were any changes made to the experiment? There were no changes made to the method during the experiment. The volume of hydrogen peroxide solution remained at 20cm�, as did the volume of celery solution. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would show greater depth into the topic and hopefully provide more conclusive results as to the conditions needed for the optimum yield of the products given off when hydrogen peroxide reacts with catalyst. From background research it is possible to discover that a rise in temperature increases the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions; a fall in temperature slows them down. In many cases a rise of 10oC will double the rate of reaction, but above 50oC the enzymes, being proteins, are denatured and stop working. Knowing this it is possible to compose an experiment which will test if the above information is true for the enzyme, catalyst and work out the temperature at which the rate of reaction is highest. Prediction It is predict that the enzyme catalyst will only work at temperatures above 10oC and below 50oC. The optimum reaction rate will lie somewhere between 30oC and 40oC. As catalyst is an enzyme, which is used in the body, it is likely to have a high yield at 37oC, which is body temperature. The predicted graph shows how the rate of reaction doubles as the temperature increases by 10oC and how below 10oC and above50oC the catalyst is denatured and does not function. Method The apparatus would be set up in the same way as the experiment for substrate concentration only using an ice bath or Bunsen burner to get the catalyst solution to the required temperature. 1. Use 10cm3 of the catalyst solution and place in a chronicle flask. 2. Cool to 10oC using an ice bath. 3. Put 10cm3 of hydrogen solution into the chronicle flask. 4. Leave to react for 1 minute. 5. Record the results. Repeat for 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60oC. Work out average O2 produced for each temperature and rate of reaction. Draw graphs using the results collected. From the graphs conclusions can be drawn as to the nature of catalyst and the best conditions needed for the fastest reaction rate. ?? ?? ?? ?? Verdi Viela Biology coursework ...read more.

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