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Investigating the effect of Enzyme Concentration.

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Introduction

Biology - Investigating the effect of Enzyme Concentration Aim To investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction the enzyme controls, using amylase and starch to illustrate this. Introduction An Enzyme is a protein, which is capable of starting a chemical reaction, which involves the formation and/or breakage of chemical bonds. The Features of Enzymes are: - Speeds up the Rate of Reaction - Is a biological catalyst - Denatures if the temperature is too high - Lower activation energy Enzymes are very particular - they won't catalyze just any old reaction, only those which are suited for the enzyme. This selectivity is because of the essentially fixed shape of the place where the molecules must get together within the enzyme's reaction site in order to get close enough to form a bond. Bacteria too, must have function enzymes available. Being only a single cell with only a single chromosome, bacteria is quite astonishing in their ability to make structural and functional components of all of the things necessary for the cell to stay alive. Here is a diagram of an Enzyme: An Active Site is Region of an enzyme where substrates bind. Enzymes and substrates do not react with each other, they hold each other together. Amylase breaks down a chain of glucose dividing them into twos, producing maltose. ...read more.

Middle

- Do not eat or drink during any part of the experiment. - When using matches, be sure to handle them with care. - If a bottle of a chemical is broken on the floor immediately locate and contact the lab technician. - After the experiment ensure to wash your hands thoroughly before touching any part of your body. - Do not run around in the laboratory and make sure all bags are underneath the tables. Observation Here are the Results I have collected from my experiment in the form of a table: Table 1 Table showing my First set of Results using Different Concentrations of Amylase Amylase % Time Taken (sec) Colour Benedict Time (min) 0.5 240 L. Brown 9.32 0.75 180 L. Brown 8.49 1.0 150 L. Brown 6.03 1.5 120 L. Brown 4.57 2.0 90 L. Brown 4.06 From Table 1, it is clear to see that there is a steady decrease in the amount of time taken for the solution to turn Light Brown. But around 0.5% to 0.75% there is a sudden drop in time by 60 seconds, clearly showing that the reaction speeds up Also, from the table, it is clear to see that when the solution was placed in a water bath at 80� with Benedict solution, it showed us that sugar was present Table 2 Table showing my Second set of Results using Different Concentrations of Amylase Amylase % Time Taken (sec) ...read more.

Conclusion

To make my experiment more accurate, I should put the measuring cylinder on a flat surface and see if it the correct amount. Another problem I encountered was with the stop clock, which made the test very unfair as each time I started the experiment I kept pressing the wrong button, and by the time I got it right, the experiment had already turned cloudy. To make the experiment more accurate next time, I should let one partner do the timing, and let the other pour the hydrochloric acid into the beaker. The test could have also been more accurate if I repeated the experiment a couple more times, thus getting a more accurate result or even by making the temperature go up by 2�, where I would have been able to see where exactly the Rate of Reaction begins to speed up and at what Temperature. Also, a burette could have been used to measure the volume more accurately, to give a more precise volume. This test may have also been unfair due to the lack of accurate equipment. Overall, I am pleased with my results and findings, and have a better knowledge of how a Reaction such as Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid can be affected by not just the surface area, a catalyst and the concentration, but also the temperature. Nina Hurhangee 11 Miranda ...read more.

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