• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating the effect of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, using Mayfly Nymph as an indicator.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the effect of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, using Mayfly Nymph as an indicator. Background Information Pollution can be defined as "adding to the environment a potentially hazardous substance or source of energy faster than the environment can accommodate it." Freshwater pollution Organic waste, such as sewage is often dumped into rivers, as it is the easiest way to get rid of it. If the discharge of organic waste is small compared to the amount of water in the river, then it is broken down to simple in organic substances by bacteria and fungi, a process known as self-purification. If however the discharge becomes too much, bacteria thrive and begin to use up oxygen from the river, this causes a biological oxygen demand. ...read more.

Middle

Breakdown to simple inorganic nutrients is an oxygen-demanding process. Dissolved oxygen levels may be reduced below those necessary for successful growth and reproduction of other species. It may also cause death of fish and other species resulting in a further oxygen demand for decomposition to take place. Thus making the situation deteriorate. Mayfly Lymph Scientific Name: Cloaena species Group: Insect Size: 10-20 mm Position in food chain: primary consumer (herbivore) Mayfly Nymphs are only found in very clean water containing lots of oxygen. They absorb oxygen from the water through their gills. Hypothesis I think that there will be a better community structure at Debden Brook Downstream than behind the houses. i.e. a higher number of Mayfly Nymph in the river at Debden Brook Downstream compared to the location behind the houses. ...read more.

Conclusion

A kick sample is done at the two sites. This is used for collecting organisms in fresh running water. An open sweep or plankton net is held vertically downstream of the area being sampled by turning over stones and scraping off organisms. These are then swept into the net. Alternatively, the area being sampled is agitated by kicking and stamping so that organisms are displaced vertically and swept into the net by the current. The contents of the net is then emptied into the tray, and it is analysed for microorganisms these are then transferred carefully with a spoon into a container filled with the same river water. The type of organism is identified and recorded in a table. Apparatus * Wellingtons * Open sweep/plankton net * Analysing tray * Two containers * Plastic spoons * 2 Bottles ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of Duckweeds

    5 star(s)

    results in a proton gradient, with a higher H+ concentration outside the cell than inside. The gradient is a form of stored energy, because the H+ ions tend to diffuse 'downhill' back into the cell. Plant cells use energy stored in the proton gradient to drive the transport of many different solutes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation on the size of Limpets.

    5 star(s)

    The limpets on the lower shore have competition with seaweed and therefore don't get as much food making them smaller in size. The results showed that there was a higher frequency of smaller limpets and a lower frequency of larger limpets at the wave-exposed site (lower shore)

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Therefore in my method I will choose to start the experiment from pH 8 and to achieve this pH we added 3cm3 of sodium hydrogen carbonate to the milk during this experiment, so I will use this volume or however much is needed of sodium hydrogen carbonate in my method to get the pH to 8.

  2. Investigation of Microorganisms

    Yeast Cells A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). Microorganisms are often illustrated using single-celled, or unicellular organisms; however, some unicellular protists are visible to the naked eye.

  1. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    The final prediction graph that I will make is the activity of lipase against the substrate concentration. The reason I will plot these two variables is because the bile actually acts on the substrate and emulsifies it increasing the surface area.

  2. the Effect of Copper Ions on a

    when using a spotting tile thus my end point decision making can be carried out thoughtfully providing me with more accurate results. Risk Assessment 1. CuSO4 is harmful if swallowed and may cause vomiting. Therefore hands must be washed after the experiment preventing the salt coming in contact with any food.

  1. Moscow, Russian Federation Summer-time pollution and summer smog problems

    It is crucial to precisely measure the emitted substances in order to proceed with policy and engineering measures to resolve the issue of such immense pollution contribution from automobile source. II. Atmospheric pollution monitoring in Moscow. Currently there are three different independent organizations that measure levels of air pollution in Moscow city.

  2. Investigation into how Lichen growth is affected as you move further away from a ...

    find is if water abundance has any effect on the growth of Lichen and if it has any effect on the type of Lichen growth i.e. if certain Lichens are more predisposed to grow in an environment where there is a higher abundance of water.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work