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Investigating the Effects On the Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction (Amylase and Starch)

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Introduction

Biology Coursework: Investigating the Effects on the Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction Aim: The aim of our investigation is to see the effect temperature has on the rate of en enzyme controlled reaction. The enzyme and the substrate we are using are Amylase and Starch. Amylase being the enzyme and starch being the substrate. The concentrations we are sing are (0.1mol of Amylase and 1mol of starch). Introduction: Enzymes are substances in plants and animals that speed biochemical reactions. Enzymes can build up or break down other molecules. The molecules they act on are called substrates. Enzymes are catalysts--chemicals that hasten a chemical reaction without undergoing any change themselves. Most enzymes are huge protein molecule. Highly specific, each usually catalyzes only one type of chemical reaction. Some enzymes consist of a protein and a helpful nonprotein component called a prosthetic group. When the prosthetic group is loosely linked to the protein, it is called a coenzyme. Vitamins are important parts of these coenzymes. Since enzyme molecules are far larger than those of their substrates, their catalytic action occurs only at a small active site on the enzyme. The substrate and the enzyme fit together at the active site like a Lock and a key. This accounts for an enzyme's specificity for a particular substrate. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus: * 1 Tripod * 1 Gauze * 1 Bunsen burner * 1 Heat proof mat * 1 Beaker * Boiling tubes (2) * Pipettes (2) * 1 Measuring cylinder * Water (50cm3) * Amylase * Starch * Stopwatch In the experiment there will be a number of possible variables that could change such as: Temperature, Concentration, pH, Surface area, Volume of mixture and Pressure that the reaction is taking place at. The variable we are changing is only temperature of the reaction, we are using a set concentration of enzyme and substrate, pH paper is added to the reaction to see if it is taking place at neutral, the volume of amylase and starch are being measured and the reaction is taking place in a lab so it will be only normal atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reaction is the most important variable we will be changing as it will define the results we achieve, we will be checking that it is kept constant at the desired temperature by using a thermometer and moving the Bunsen flame away so there is no direct heat on the water bath when the desired temperature is achieved. I will be measuring the time taken for the starch and iodine to completely react using the iodine test of adding samples of the mixture at regular intervals to iodine and when there is no colour change the reaction is complete. ...read more.

Conclusion

to an enzyme that has a optimum temperature less temperature sensitive so it would not keep denaturisation so no chemical reactions would be able to take place. If I repeated this experiment again, I would * Use a large spotting tile so it is easier to keep results of chemical reaction safe, and collect for easier observations. * Continue the experiment until I can find the enzymes optimum temperature. * See if enzymes optimum temperature has any effect of the starch substrate. * Increase the scale of the experiment. The boiling tubes were always difficult to fit a pipette down to take a sample. * When the sample is dropped into spotting tile and there still remains some more mixture in the pipette don't replace it back into the boiling tube. * Use more starch and amylase. Conclusion: From the experiment I can conclude that the temperature of an enzyme controlled reaction affects the rate. Also the results show when plotted in a graph that Time is inversely proportional to Temperature as when plotted on a graph a negative correlating curve is formed. Rate is directly proportional to Temperature as when plotted on a graph a positive correlating line is formed that passes through point (0, 0). The enzyme does not have an optimum of 40 degrees c and did not denature at 60 degrees c as predicted. ?? ?? ?? ?? Created by yuki nehikhare - 1 - ...read more.

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