• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigation into how temperature affects the enzyme: Amylase.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation into how temperature affects the enzyme: Amylase Planning Prediction I predict that the amylase will work best at 37?C-40?C (body temperature) and will not work at 0?C and at 60?C. The amylase should still work above 0?C and below 60?C but they will work slower. I believe this because I know that the amylase work best at body temperature because that is where they are used to working. Body temperature is 37?C. Variables In order to make my experiment a fair test I will have to consider the variables that affect the activity of amylase. Anything that I cannot control I will note down to compare at the end. 1. The first variable in this experiment will be the temperature. As temperature increases, the molecules of the amylase gain more kinetic energy and move a lot faster. This will increase the rate at which the amylase and the starch molecules meet. But when the temperature begins to rise, the bonds that hold the amylase molecules in shape are broken & the enzyme is de-natured (stops working). To control this variable, I must use water baths to keep the temperature of the amylase the same, a range of temperatures must be used, and so I must use more than one water bath, each set at different intervals. To keep it as accurate as possible I must transfer the test tube of the enzyme/starch from the water bath to my work bench as quickly as possible to prevent the cooling/heating of the enzyme/starch. ...read more.

Middle

Reaction? 1 15 No 2 30 No 3 45 No 4 60 No 5 75 No 6 90 Yes From my results I noticed some errors in my working which affected my results. These errors will help me with my investigation, as I will know not to make the same mistakes. I will set up and perform my investigation in the same way as my preliminary work e.g. same equipment (excluding waterbaths). As predicted, my preliminary work showed that PH 7 reacted the quickest with the amylase. Equipment List * Test tubes * 10cm� measuring cylinder * Dimple Tray * Pipettes (plastic & glass for health reasons) * Test tube rack * Timer * Iodine Solution Method I will start by measuring out 1cm� of amylase & mixing it with 4cm� of filtered water in the 10cm� measuring cylinder, I will do this 5 times. Next I will measure out, in a separate measuring cylinder, 5 lots of 5cm� of starch solution & place both the amylase and the starch solutions in separate water baths set at 20�C, 30�C, 40�C & 60�C and also in some ice (0�C). These temperatures are sensible to use because they are in between inactivation temperature (0�C) and denaturing temperature (60�C). Next, using a pipette, I will put 2 drops of Iodine into each dimple on the dimple trays. I will leave the solutions in the water baths/ice for 5 minutes. ...read more.

Conclusion

and at what point the enzyme becomes inactive (0�c). All my results support my prediction except that I expected the enzyme to be de-natured completely at 60�c. Evaluation I tried to keep everything at a constant while doing my experiment, and I tried to measure everything accurately. There were, however, a few things that caused me problems e.g. at the start of each experiment I needed to shake up the solution as soon as I mixed the two substances together this meant that I could not take an accurate reading at 0 seconds, although I do not think this affected my results greatly. I did not have time to do a repeat so I took other peoples results and this was obviously not as accurate as it would have been had I done the experiment with my own saliva each time as people have different strengths of saliva. Therefore I was not controlling this variable and, had I had time I would have remedied this by repeating the experiment another 2 times to find an accurate average. However this was not possible but despite the anomalous second set of results my results and graph did show the basic idea that in extremes of temperature the enzyme is less efficient. My results are not very reliable as the saliva strength was not controlled as it should have been (I should have repeated with my own saliva) but they are accurate - I did measure everything out carefully with precision and timed to .0 of a second. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

***
A reasonably well planned report. The experimenter obtained some sound results but the repeats were invalid. The report would have benefited from better data analysis and evaluation.
Planning:
The important variables to be controlled are described well. The method could have been improved by adding key information such as how the amylase was obtained and the strength of the starch solution. The risk assessment information could have been more clearly recorded in a table.
Obtaining evidence:
A pilot study was carried out to determine the best pH to use for the experiment. The results for this experiment would have been easier to follow if recorded in one table. In the main experiment it is slightly misleading to imply that all the results were obtained by the one student. These were class results and this should be shown on the results table. A good number of values for the independent variable were recorded but the range was a little narrow.
Analysis and Evaluation:
The trends and patterns in the data were recognized and the anomalous results were accounted for. The explanations were sound and related to fairly basic biological knowledge. The candidate needed to improve the evaluation by considering the key problems in this method eg. the limitations in observing the colour change, and suggesting modifications to improve the reliability of the results.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 29/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    The water baths also had different volumes of water in them and this could have caused some errors in the results obtained. Another major problem with the water baths was that they were not all at the exact temperature required; I checked this by placing thermometers in the water baths.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    I repeated my experiment 3 times in the practical, although I did think about doing 4 repetitions but decided that 3 would provide me with adequate results to draw reasonable scientific conclusions. Each time I took a set of beakers out of the water bath I replaced them with the

  1. Type - 1 Hypersensitivity Reaction

    (Similar to the lock and key theory, enzymes). Sensitised 1 guinea pig ileum on the first exposure to 1 ml of egg albumin (allergens/antigen). It can be determined that, the ileum contracted thus inducing an allergic reaction, via the binding of the IgE to the FC site on the surface of the mast cells this resulted in the

  2. Investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of free and immobilised enzymes.

    clip * Glass rod * Distilled water * Pasteurised milk * 100cm3 beaker * Plastic tea strainer * Test tubes Free enzyme solution * 5cm3 lactase * 20cm3 distilled water * Conical flask * 10cm3 plastic syringe and barrel * Clamp and clamp stand * Short length of tubing, to

  1. DETERMINING THE WATER POTENTIAL OF A POTATO TUBER CELLS USING THE WEIGHING METHOD.

    it will be osmosing for a longer period of time, and thus loose more water, and mass. I will control this by timing the time of each potato chip spends in solution, and keeping it the same for each chip. Time is measured to the nearest minute, using a stopwatch.

  2. To investigate one of the factors that affects the permeability of cell membranes.

    If more of the membrane is dissolved when you increase the alcohol concentration, then there will be more gaps for the pigment to leak out of, and so more pigment molecules will escape into the surrounding solution. Therefore, the permeability is increased.

  1. How the concentration of amylase effects the digestion of the starch.

    The diagram above is from a text book... ' key science- biology' written by...'David Applin' published in 1994 -shows the optimum PH level of an enzyme... The volume of starch used also has to be kept the same (60ml) throughout the experiment, because if one contains more starch than the other, the enzymes will have to do more

  2. An Investigation Into The Digestion Of Milk By Trypsin.

    I then added 5cm� of trypsin into each tube. I would then record the results, which would measure which pH solution had the most effect on the enzyme. Results Time (seconds) Temperature ?C Rate of Reaction (1/seconds) 46.2 60 0.022 46.35 40 0.022 132.09 20 0.008 Time (seconds) Buffer solution (pH)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work