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Investigation into how temperature affects the enzyme: Amylase.

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Introduction

Investigation into how temperature affects the enzyme: Amylase Planning Prediction I predict that the amylase will work best at 37?C-40?C (body temperature) and will not work at 0?C and at 60?C. The amylase should still work above 0?C and below 60?C but they will work slower. I believe this because I know that the amylase work best at body temperature because that is where they are used to working. Body temperature is 37?C. Variables In order to make my experiment a fair test I will have to consider the variables that affect the activity of amylase. Anything that I cannot control I will note down to compare at the end. 1. The first variable in this experiment will be the temperature. As temperature increases, the molecules of the amylase gain more kinetic energy and move a lot faster. This will increase the rate at which the amylase and the starch molecules meet. But when the temperature begins to rise, the bonds that hold the amylase molecules in shape are broken & the enzyme is de-natured (stops working). To control this variable, I must use water baths to keep the temperature of the amylase the same, a range of temperatures must be used, and so I must use more than one water bath, each set at different intervals. To keep it as accurate as possible I must transfer the test tube of the enzyme/starch from the water bath to my work bench as quickly as possible to prevent the cooling/heating of the enzyme/starch. ...read more.

Middle

Reaction? 1 15 No 2 30 No 3 45 No 4 60 No 5 75 No 6 90 Yes From my results I noticed some errors in my working which affected my results. These errors will help me with my investigation, as I will know not to make the same mistakes. I will set up and perform my investigation in the same way as my preliminary work e.g. same equipment (excluding waterbaths). As predicted, my preliminary work showed that PH 7 reacted the quickest with the amylase. Equipment List * Test tubes * 10cm� measuring cylinder * Dimple Tray * Pipettes (plastic & glass for health reasons) * Test tube rack * Timer * Iodine Solution Method I will start by measuring out 1cm� of amylase & mixing it with 4cm� of filtered water in the 10cm� measuring cylinder, I will do this 5 times. Next I will measure out, in a separate measuring cylinder, 5 lots of 5cm� of starch solution & place both the amylase and the starch solutions in separate water baths set at 20�C, 30�C, 40�C & 60�C and also in some ice (0�C). These temperatures are sensible to use because they are in between inactivation temperature (0�C) and denaturing temperature (60�C). Next, using a pipette, I will put 2 drops of Iodine into each dimple on the dimple trays. I will leave the solutions in the water baths/ice for 5 minutes. ...read more.

Conclusion

and at what point the enzyme becomes inactive (0�c). All my results support my prediction except that I expected the enzyme to be de-natured completely at 60�c. Evaluation I tried to keep everything at a constant while doing my experiment, and I tried to measure everything accurately. There were, however, a few things that caused me problems e.g. at the start of each experiment I needed to shake up the solution as soon as I mixed the two substances together this meant that I could not take an accurate reading at 0 seconds, although I do not think this affected my results greatly. I did not have time to do a repeat so I took other peoples results and this was obviously not as accurate as it would have been had I done the experiment with my own saliva each time as people have different strengths of saliva. Therefore I was not controlling this variable and, had I had time I would have remedied this by repeating the experiment another 2 times to find an accurate average. However this was not possible but despite the anomalous second set of results my results and graph did show the basic idea that in extremes of temperature the enzyme is less efficient. My results are not very reliable as the saliva strength was not controlled as it should have been (I should have repeated with my own saliva) but they are accurate - I did measure everything out carefully with precision and timed to .0 of a second. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

***
A reasonably well planned report. The experimenter obtained some sound results but the repeats were invalid. The report would have benefited from better data analysis and evaluation.
Planning:
The important variables to be controlled are described well. The method could have been improved by adding key information such as how the amylase was obtained and the strength of the starch solution. The risk assessment information could have been more clearly recorded in a table.
Obtaining evidence:
A pilot study was carried out to determine the best pH to use for the experiment. The results for this experiment would have been easier to follow if recorded in one table. In the main experiment it is slightly misleading to imply that all the results were obtained by the one student. These were class results and this should be shown on the results table. A good number of values for the independent variable were recorded but the range was a little narrow.
Analysis and Evaluation:
The trends and patterns in the data were recognized and the anomalous results were accounted for. The explanations were sound and related to fairly basic biological knowledge. The candidate needed to improve the evaluation by considering the key problems in this method eg. the limitations in observing the colour change, and suggesting modifications to improve the reliability of the results.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 29/05/2013

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