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Investigation of Microorganisms

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Introduction

Introduction For my AVCE Science coursework I will be doing an investigation into organisms; however I will be describing 2 of them in specific detail. The organisms that I will be investigation are: Barley Yeast Hen Farming I will be investigating in further detail of the barley and yeast. I have chosen to investigate the barley and yeast organisms because as part of my course I visited a brewery manufacturing company. I collected a lot of information on these two. While I was there I understood how barley is used towards the organisations success. Plan I will research the different types of organisms and compare them as well as research the to chosen organism and look at them in depth to get a better understanding. To increase my knowledge and give me a better understanding I will visit a brewing shop, preferably Carlsberg. I will gather information on how the brewing process is done. I will use relevant data collected from different websites and use the correct terminology, which I think is correct. Outlines of Barley It grows faster in cold conditions, it is an major food around the world, it is also used to feed animals such as horses, cattle etc. It mixed with other grains such as rice. A particular strain of barley found in China, it is effective in breaking down animal fats in the body. This was considered to be the poorer person's food source in the early days. It is identified by its 'awns', which are covered in tiny barbs and cling to clothing. Barley is an excellent grain for those who suffer from allergies to other grains. Whole Barley has the bran intact and is darker, chewier and more nutritious than the more processed pearled barley. Pearled Barley is more processed and has the outer bran shaved off. The "pearled" name comes from barley where its bran and fibre have been removed until only a small, round white "pearl" of starchy endosperm remains. ...read more.

Middle

The result from this process is that the offspring produced during germination after meiosis will differ slightly as it will include instructions for the cells to work, contained in the DNA. This allows sexual reproduction to occur. Meiosis uses many biochemical processes that are similar to those used in mitosis in order to distribute chromosomes among the resulting cells; however the outcome is very different: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process with plants, when they use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which is called cellular respiration, this converts into ATP, and this is the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll. On a regular basis, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we humans need to survive as well as animals. The process where by plants make sugars is photosynthesis. This is when the plant takes in carbon dioxide from the air though pores using its leaves and absorbs water through its roots. These are combined to make sugar-using energy from the sun and with the help of a substance called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is green, which allows it to absorb the sun's energy more readily, and which gives the plants' leaves their green colour. The reaction of photosynthesis can be written as the following chemical equation when sucrose (the chemical name for sugar) is: 12 CO2 + 11 H2 O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2 carbon dioxide + water = sucrose + oxygen One of the outcomes of the photosynthesis process is Sugar; this is made by some plants to store energy that they don't need straight away. We humans use sugar as an everyday product, commonly in tea and for its sweetness of taste, in this era plants are grown commercially to extract the sugar. Chemists know sugar as a different name, this is 'sucrose'. ...read more.

Conclusion

The brewer use's this pipe to connect the mash tun to the boil kettle, this will do the re-circulations that are necessary and finally to push the bitter wort through the wort chillers. The wort chillers are made of stainless steel plates. On one side of the plate will run the boiling bitter wort and on the other side will run a coolant. In the picture below, the chiller to the left chills with water and the chiller to the right use glycol. This is very efficient. The brewer can cool 550 gallons of bitter wort from boiling to 20 degrees centigrade in 40 minutes: The fifth process in the brewing process at Carlsberg is the Fermentation Vessels, which Are where the bulk of the sugars in the wort are metabolised by yeast. The yeast eats the sugars, reproduces, and then become dormant and falls to the bottom of the fermenter. Yeast excrement is CO2 and ethanol or alcohol. The conical bottom allows us to collect yeast for future use. The bright tank is considered secondary fermentation. In this bright tank, the flavours bond, the beer is conditioned, and the yeast continues to fall out, leaving a bright beer. When the beer is bright the brewer will move it to the serving tanks. The picture below shows the Fermentation vessels: The last process is the Storage tanks, hold the beer while it is being served and the flexible site tube allows us to know how much beer is produced. The beers have fairly low carbonation, although we have been adding more to the Weisse and Blonde due to popular demand. The storage tanks are on an iron I-beam that is supported 3 1/2 feet off the floor. The picture below shows the storage tanks: The tanks used by Carlsberg are much bigger than these tanks, but this is the brewing process used by brewers to produce their beer. ...read more.

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