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Investigation of the structure of a cantilever beam.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PLANNING

AIM.

    INVESTIGATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF A CANTILEVER BEAM.

APPARATUS LIST.

  1. 3 Measuring rulers (1m each).
  2. 10 Weights. (100g each)
  3. 2 Wooden blocks.
  4. Clamp.
  5. Screw gauge with a sensitivity of 0.1mm
  6. Vernia calapus with a sensitivity of 0.2mm

VARIABLES INVOLVED.

                    The variables that will be kept constant are the length of the overhang of the ruler, the position where the ruler is clamped and the position on the ruler where the weights are hung. The only variable that will change during the experiment is the amount of weight that is hung on one end of the ruler to measure the different deflection of the ruler at different heights. The weights that are hung on one end of the ruler will vary each time by adding 100g to the previous weight and read of the deflection of the ruler until it reaches 1kg.

 METHOD.

                      Arrange the apparatus as shown in the above diagram. As the apparatus is fixed appropriately we can then start the experiment. As the apparatus is fixed we might see the ruler has a slight bend without any weights on it this is due to its own weight, this can be counted as a systematic error .Now I am going to start adding 100g weights to the ruler.

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Middle

0.3

3.5

0.4

4.3

0.5

5.4

0.6

6.3

0.7

7.2

0.8

8.1

0.9

9.2

1.0

10.2

1st Reading for the deflection of the ruler.        2nd Reading.

Weight (kg)

Deflection(cm)

0.1

1.4

0.2

2.7

0.3

3.5

0.4

4.4

0.5

5.4

0.6

6.3

0.7

7.4

0.8

8.2

0.9

9.2

1.0

10.2

Weights(kg)

Deflection(cm)

0.1

1.6

0.2

2.4

0.3

3.6

0.4

4.5

0.5

5.5

0.6

6.4

0.7

7.4

0.8

8.3

0.9

9.2

1.0

10.2

3rd Reading.        4th Reading.

Weights(kg)

Deflection(cm)

 0.1

1.53

0.2

2.58

0.3

3.50

0.4

4.40

0.5

5.43

0.6

6.30

0.7

7.33

0.8

8.20

0.9

9.18

1.0

10.25

These values are the average for all the above reading for the deflection of the ruler.

 There were other values taken as well like the area of the ruler was measured with a screw gauge 3 times to give an average value.

1ST READING

2ND READING

3RD READING

AVERAGE READING

6.50 mm

6.50mm

6.51mm

6.50mm

The length of the overhang was approximately 70cm.

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Conclusion

                 Throughout the experiment the same apparatus were used even for the repetitions. The only thing that varied during the repetitions was that I used different sides on the ruler to check that the deflections at each side were almost the same.

                The method used for the above experiment was quite reliable. As the apparatus used were the same throughout the experiment.

To improve the method by which I carried out my experiment will be to use a screw gauge, which does not have a zero error. Fix a point on one end of the ruler for the weights to be hung so that there are no errors while reading the deflection of the ruler. Use a fixed length for the overhang. Initially see that the ruler does not have bend, if it does use a similar ruler with the same amount of bend length to place it next to the ruler on which weights are hung to get an accurate reading for the deflection.

                The experiment was done fairly accurately and gave me a set of results that were fairly accurate and were similar to my prediction, which I made from reference. So I think this method of doing this experiment was fairly good.

Reference: Understanding physics for advanced level by Jim Breithaupt.

Websites: www.google.com, www.yahoo.com

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