• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigation to find out how concentration affects reaction rate.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation to find out how concentration affects reaction rate Aim To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with solid calcium carbonate Hypothesis When hydrochloric acid is reacted with calcium carbonate the equation for the reaction is: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) I predict that the higher the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, the more carbon dioxide will be produced, as there is more hydrochloric acid for the calcium carbonate to react with. The rate of reaction depends upon how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other (they have to collide hard enough for a reaction to occur). The more collisions there are, the faster the rate of reaction becomes because although the success rate of the collisions does not increase there frequency does which will increase the frequency of successful collisions. The higher the concentration of a substance the more particles of it there are. In this case, if there is a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid there are more particles of hydrochloric acid. As there are more particles of hydrochloric acid, the chance that there will be a collision with a calcium carbonate particle is increased. ...read more.

Middle

This experiment also allows me to easily record my results - the gas syringe allowing me to make my results accurate. I can also collect all of my data within a few lessons. Before my actual experiment I conducted a trial, to see if my plan would work. I followed the description above in setting up the equipment and decided to measure the concentrations at 0.5 M, 1 M and 1.5 M. I chose these because they have a wide range - as do my chosen measurements. I also feel three measurements is a suitable number to test my plan. Concentration of acid (M) Time (s) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0.5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 19 21 23 2 29 32 35 36 1.5 27 30 33 34 37 39 41 41 For the concentration of 0.5 M I did not put the cork on fast enough so much of the gas escaped. This was because I was attempting to start the stopwatch at the same time. I realised it would be easier if somebody assisted me in starting the stopwatch so I could put the cork on so minimal gas is lost. ...read more.

Conclusion

I have re-taken these for my final results but they are hyphened in the table: Concentration of acid (M) Time (s) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0.8 3 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 2 8 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 I believe these low levels of gas production resulted in myself putting the cork on the test tube too slowly. This resulted in too much gas escaping though the test tube so not enough was collected in the syringe. This experiment was a generally sound way of carrying out this investigation yet if I were to repeat it I would make a change. I would change they way the calcium carbonate was added to the hydrochloric acid as too much gas escapes this way. The calcium carbonate could be added through a tube which leads to the cork and that could then be sealed to ensure gas would not escape this way. Although the graphs were beginning to level off at 40 seconds it may also be interesting to continue the timing to 60 seconds to see if the gas production had ceased completely. On a higher level, this experiment could be conducted but with the concentration of hydrochloric acid could exceed 2 M and it could be investigated whether the pattern observed in this graph continues at higher concentrations. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Gas Behaviours and the Weather

    3 star(s)

    This means that the temperature on the Earth is cooler. High pressure regions can be simply defined as regions of sinking air. Low pressure regions can be defined as regions of rising air (Bureau of Meteorology, 2010).

  2. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    ml 255 ml 246 ml 1 Molar 5 229 ml 258 ml 259 ml 249 ml 1 Molar 6 230 ml 258 ml 260 ml 249 ml 1 Molar 7 230 ml 258 ml 260 ml 249 ml 1 Molar 8 230 ml 258 ml 260 ml 249 ml 1

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    Therefore temperature is proportional to the speed squared. Suppose a particle has a speed v1 at a temperature of 300K and a speed v2 at a temperature of 310K. Therefore: (Equation 1.4.1) This means that the ratio of the speeds is given by: (Equation 1.4.2)

  2. The Determination of rate equation

    ? SO2 (g) + S(s) + H2O (l) Overall equation: Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) ? 2NaCl (aq) + SO2 (g) + S(s) + H2O (l) End Point Determination From the equation, we can see that sulphur dioxide is produced and sulphur is precipitated as products. Therefore bubbles should be produced and a cloudy solution should be observed.

  1. Titration. The aim of this investigation was to find out the accurate concentration of ...

    The weighing bottle was rinsed three times with distilled water, transferring the washings each time. This was done to ensure that the entire solid goes into the beaker. Approximately 100cm3 of distilled water was added to the beaker. This was then stirred using a glass rod to dissolve the solid.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    of KI(aq) Volume (cm3) of water Volume (cm3) of Na2S2O3(aq) Volume (cm3) of starch solution Volume (cm3) of K2S2O8(aq) 1 5 0 2 1 2 2 4 1 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 4 2 3 2 1 2 5 1 4 2 1 2 4.

  1. detremining the rate equation

    Volume of Na2S2O3 and HCl When changing the concentrations the volume will all so change. I will fill the rest of the volume with water to keep a constant overall volume to avoid a presence of another variable. Variables for method 1 Dependent variable - will be the time taken

  2. Individual investigation - Reaction to be studied Rate of reaction between propanone and ...

    * Rinse the burette using the known concentration of sodium thiosulfate (VI) and then fill the burette with sodium thiosulfate (VI). * From the burette slowly add the sodium thoisulfate (VI) to the conical flask containing test solution. * Add the starch indicator to the solution when the colour of the iodine starts to fades away.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work