• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Legionnaires disease.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

4. Discuss the biology and epidemiology of Legionnaires disease. Legionnaires disease or also commonly known as Legion fever is an infectious disease caused by anaerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. This disease is a type of pneumonia that affects the lungs of a human. Most of the legionellosis cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila (Tateda et al., 2001b) , an aquatic organism that can be found in warm water environments from temperatures ranging between 250 and 450 C. Both the disease and the bacterium were discovered following an outbreak that affected a meeting of the American Legion convention in 1976 (Marston et al., 1994). This disease usually occurs frequently in men than women. This bacteria usually targets middle-aged or elderly people and most commonly affecting smokers and people with chest complications as this people have lower chances to overcome or the immune system to fight the illness. Besides, legion fevers Legionella organisms also cause Pontiac fever which is a flu-like illness but not as serious as Legionnaire disease. ...read more.

Middle

. Rifampicin can be used in combination with a quinolone or macrolide. These antibiotics are effective because they have excellent intracellular penetration and Legionella infects cells. Besides antibiotics being prescribed to patients, other methods of treatments are also used such as fluid and electrolyte replacement or supplying oxygen to the patient(Sherwood L. Gorbach et al.,2004). Long term side effect of Legionnaire disease. As with any acute illness, patients who recover from Legionnaires' disease can suffer long term side effects. The most common are fatigue and lack of energy for several months. However, asthma is still pending investigations by scientist as it is unclear as to whether this can be blamed solely on Legionnaires' disease; asthma may be due to a number of stresses besides Legionnaires' disease (Tateda et al., 2001b) Prevention of Legionella growth. Legionella bacteria itself can be inhibited by UVC light. However, Legionella bacteria that grow and reproduce in amoebae or that are sheltered in corrosion particles cannot be killed by UV light alone. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even though the fatality rate is merely 1%, this disease can never be taken lightly as a mistake could cause this bacteria to multiply in days triggering yet another major outbreak of disease (Klaus Heuner, Michele Swanson 2008). Reference Klaus Heuner, Michele Swanson (2008), Legionella: molecular microbiology.Caister Academic Press. P 151-165 Marston, B. J., Lipman, H. B. & Breiman, R. F. (1994). Surveillance for Legionnaires' disease. Risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Arch Intern Med 154. P 2417-2422. Molofsky, A. B., Byrne, B. G., Whitfield, N. N., Madigan, C. A., Fuse, E. T., Tateda, K. & Swanson, M. S. (2006). Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection. J Exp Med 203. P 1093-1104. Sherwood L. Gorbach, John G. Bartlett, Neil R. Blacklow (2004), Infectious diseases. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. P 523-524. Tateda, K., Moore, T. A., Newstead, M. W., Tsai, W. C., Zeng, X., Deng, J. C., Chen, G., Reddy, R., Yamaguchi, K. & Standiford, T. J. (2001b). Chemokine-dependent neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of Legionella pneumonia: potential role of neutrophils as immunoregulatory cells. Infect Immun 69. P 2017-2024. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Investigation as to whether the aspect of a wall affects the growth of lichens

    210 - 459 = 151 Step 5 n1n2 - U = 400 - 151 = 249 Step 6 The critical Value (U crit) corresponding to n1 and n2 = 127. As this value was obtained from the one tailed Man-Whitney U-Test there is only a 2.5% level of significance.

  2. Parkinsons Disease

    Some other symptoms may develop due to problems with the way affected brain cells and nerves control the muscles. These include: * Fewer facial expressions such as smiling or frowning. Less blinking. * Difficulty with fine movements such as tying shoe laces or buttoning shirts.

  1. Biology Coursework: Does Acupuncture relieve pain?

    Though these occurrences are indeed rare, they do happen. A person who hasn't been trained to utilize the proper delivery of acupuncture can damage another person permanently which is why it is so important to know who you go to for acupuncture treatments.

  2. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    churn up the soil, this destroys the plant habitat and reduces density. * Species diversity- The species diversity in both the areas where very similar 0.63 (Area 1) and 0.60 (Area 2), this proved that the trampling has no effect on the variety of species present, only the density.

  1. patterns of growth and development

    put into your hand to being able to tie a bow all by yourself. Sensory Skills Babies have little ability to see from the time they are born as they grow they become able to understand what they see, alter their focus of their eyes to see things more clearly

  2. Can relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) be prevented?

    It also reduces the risk of the patients relapsing in future. 2, 5, 15, 16 During chemotherapy, the patient may also be prescribed a number of other treatments depending on their circumstances. Small amounts of radiotherapy can be given to kill the leukemic cells using high energy rays.

  1. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    There is not another method that is both as accurate and as easily performed as this. This is the best method to measure the oxygen of water because it is accurate. The dissolved oxygen has to be measured at the site because some oxygen may leave or enter in the sample bottle during transporting.

  2. The incurable nature of Huntington's disease and current treatments.

    It is 50% likely that a child will have Huntington's disease if one parent has the dominant allele that is faulty. This can be shown in the Punnett square above [19]. Methods and Processes used A currently ongoing study conducted by the Medical Research Council (UK), started in 1999[2], is

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work