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Legionnaires disease.

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Introduction

4. Discuss the biology and epidemiology of Legionnaires disease. Legionnaires disease or also commonly known as Legion fever is an infectious disease caused by anaerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. This disease is a type of pneumonia that affects the lungs of a human. Most of the legionellosis cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila (Tateda et al., 2001b) , an aquatic organism that can be found in warm water environments from temperatures ranging between 250 and 450 C. Both the disease and the bacterium were discovered following an outbreak that affected a meeting of the American Legion convention in 1976 (Marston et al., 1994). This disease usually occurs frequently in men than women. This bacteria usually targets middle-aged or elderly people and most commonly affecting smokers and people with chest complications as this people have lower chances to overcome or the immune system to fight the illness. Besides, legion fevers Legionella organisms also cause Pontiac fever which is a flu-like illness but not as serious as Legionnaire disease. ...read more.

Middle

. Rifampicin can be used in combination with a quinolone or macrolide. These antibiotics are effective because they have excellent intracellular penetration and Legionella infects cells. Besides antibiotics being prescribed to patients, other methods of treatments are also used such as fluid and electrolyte replacement or supplying oxygen to the patient(Sherwood L. Gorbach et al.,2004). Long term side effect of Legionnaire disease. As with any acute illness, patients who recover from Legionnaires' disease can suffer long term side effects. The most common are fatigue and lack of energy for several months. However, asthma is still pending investigations by scientist as it is unclear as to whether this can be blamed solely on Legionnaires' disease; asthma may be due to a number of stresses besides Legionnaires' disease (Tateda et al., 2001b) Prevention of Legionella growth. Legionella bacteria itself can be inhibited by UVC light. However, Legionella bacteria that grow and reproduce in amoebae or that are sheltered in corrosion particles cannot be killed by UV light alone. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even though the fatality rate is merely 1%, this disease can never be taken lightly as a mistake could cause this bacteria to multiply in days triggering yet another major outbreak of disease (Klaus Heuner, Michele Swanson 2008). Reference Klaus Heuner, Michele Swanson (2008), Legionella: molecular microbiology.Caister Academic Press. P 151-165 Marston, B. J., Lipman, H. B. & Breiman, R. F. (1994). Surveillance for Legionnaires' disease. Risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Arch Intern Med 154. P 2417-2422. Molofsky, A. B., Byrne, B. G., Whitfield, N. N., Madigan, C. A., Fuse, E. T., Tateda, K. & Swanson, M. S. (2006). Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection. J Exp Med 203. P 1093-1104. Sherwood L. Gorbach, John G. Bartlett, Neil R. Blacklow (2004), Infectious diseases. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. P 523-524. Tateda, K., Moore, T. A., Newstead, M. W., Tsai, W. C., Zeng, X., Deng, J. C., Chen, G., Reddy, R., Yamaguchi, K. & Standiford, T. J. (2001b). Chemokine-dependent neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of Legionella pneumonia: potential role of neutrophils as immunoregulatory cells. Infect Immun 69. P 2017-2024. ...read more.

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