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Magnesium and hydrochloric acid react together readily. Plan and carry out an investigation testing a factor that you think will effect the reaction. You may only use equipment available to you in the science laboratory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Carla Jones 11y set 1 Chemistry Assessment Centre no. 29200 Candidate no.8159 Brief Magnesium and hydrochloric acid react together readily. Plan and carry out an investigation testing a factor that you think will effect the reaction. You may only use equipment available to you in the science laboratory. Your plan must be approved before you start the practical work, as must the preliminary work. ______________________________ Background information. In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the hydrochloric acid will react with the magnesium and produce hydrogen gas. All chemical reactions involve reactants which when mixed may cause a chemical reaction which will make products. In my experiment the reactants are hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The products that are formed during this reaction are hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The formula equation for this experiment is: Mg + 2HCl (r) MgCl2 + H2 Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid (r) Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen The rate of reaction between the product and the reactant will increase or decrease depending on certain factors. The factors that may affect the rate of reaction are: - temperature of the Hydrochloric Acid, mass of the magnesium ribbon used, concentration of the Hydrochloric acid, surface area of the magnesium ribbon used, the use of a catalyst and the temperature of the acid. All of these factors will change the rate of reaction because of the Collision Theory. This is a theory that is used to predict the rate of a reaction. The Collision Theory is based on the idea that for a chemical reaction to take place, it is necessary for the reacting particles to collide with each other with enough energy to break or form new bonds between the other particles, which is called a successful collision. If when they collide and they do not have enough energy to break or form new bonds then they will simple bounce of each other, causing an unsuccessful collision. ...read more.

Middle

In my equipment list and also in my plan I wrote that I would use a divided flask if possible, because I knew that this would ensure that our results were as accurate as possible. However this wasn't possible because I couldn't get a divided flask. So instead I will use a chronicle flask although this may make the results a little in accurate because we will have to add the magnesium to the acid and then quickly place the bung in to avoid any loss of hydrogen. This may prove difficult especially when using the higher concentrations of acid because large reactions will occur in a shorter amount of time. RESULTS 0.05g Magnesium ribbon 0.5molar hydrochloric acid 30ml of acid. If my prediction is right this will be the slowest reaction with the most results. Amount of hydrogen produced (cm cubed) Time (in 5 second intervals) Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Average 00.0 0 0 0 0.00 5.00 4 4 4 4.00 10.0 4 4.5 4.5 4.30 15.0 5 5 5 5.00 20.0 5 5.5 5 5.17 25.0 6 6 5 5.67 30.0. 6.5 7 6 6.50 35.0 7.5 7.5 7 7.30 40.0 8 8 8 8.00 45.0 9 8 9 8.67 50.0 10 8.5 9 9.17 55.0 11 9 9 9.67 1.00 Time in mins and secs from this point onwards 11 9.5 10 10.17 1.05 12 10.5 10 10.83 1.10 13 10.5 10.5 11.33 1.15 14 11 11 12.00 1.20 14.5 11 12 12.50 1.25 15 12 12.5 13.17 1.30 16 12.5 13 13.83 1.35 17 13 14 14.67 1.40 17.5 13 15 15.17 1.45 18 14 15.5 15.83 1.50 19 14.5 16 16.50 1.55 20 15 17 17.33 2.00 20.5 15.5 17.5 17.83 2.05 21 16 18 18.33 2.10 22 16.5 19 19.17 2.15 22.5 17 20 19.83 2.20 23.5 17 21 20.50 2.25 24 18 22 21.33 2.30 25 18 22.5 21.83 2.35 25.5 18.5 23 22.33 2.40 26 19 24 23.00 2.45 27.5 19.5 25 24.00 2.50 ...read more.

Conclusion

==>Impurites may have started to form on the cleaned Magnesium because it was left out for different lengths of time for each experiment. ==> the Magnesium ribbon may have been thouroughly cleaned for one evxperiment and not for anpother therefor slowing down the rate of reaction. ==> the top pan balance may not have been entirley accurate because in one of our lessons it wasn't workoing properly and it ws posible that one of our pieces was weighed on the faulty balance. *The loss of gas could have been prevented by the use of a dividing flask instead of a chrolicale flask.Because with a dividing flask youcantip the reactants together with the bung already firmly in place. This would mean that there would be a redced loss of gas. * To Ensure the most accurate timeing possible I could get 2 or 3 pepole to use a stop clock and then take an average of each persons time. * We did polish the gas syringe quite offten butbif it were to be cleaned after each experiment there would be even less chance of it sticking. * The same balance should always have been used to weigh out the magnesium to avoid and major descrepancies. * The magnesium should always have been used as quickly as possible after cleaning to get best results. *The chronical flask should always be closly obsered to make ure the eraction was totally finished before stoppng the experiment. To get the same amount of hydrogen for each of the experiments I did I could:- ==>Use a more accurate top pan balance. ==> make sur nobody leans on the desk whilst weighing. ==>be totally accurate when measuring the volume of acid to use. My annomoleus results may have been due to the acctual concentration in the botle beiong different to what the labble said, however I think that my annomolus results had more to do with hydrogen escaing because the reaction happenened at the same rate as the others at the same concentration but the third test finished a lot sooner than the other experiments. ...read more.

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