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Main Pollutants emitted by vehicle Engines

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Main Pollutants emitted by vehicle Engines Main pollutants: How is it formed: Environmental problems: Hydrocarbons (HC) Formed when fuel is not fully burnt. Contributes to ground-level ozone when it reacts with NOX and sunlight. Cancer.i Respiratory problems. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formed when substances containing carbon do not have access to enough air. Global warming.ii Ground ozone, which can damage plants and crops, and cause respiratory problems, even death. Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) Formed when fuels are burnt at high temperatures. Acid rain. Oxygen deficit. Haze air pollution.iii Contributes to formation of particles and smog. These can then cause health problems. Particles (PM10) Formed from the burning of fossil fuels. Can cause respiratory disease and premature death.iv Reduces visibility. Turns water in lakes and ponds acidic. Can damage crops.v There are three different types of vehicle engine: conventional, lean-burn and diesel. They all produce different types of exhaust emissions because of the ratio of air to fuel that they use. ...read more.


O2 + e- O2- H2O H+ + OH + e- Overall Reaction H2O + O2 H+ + O2- + OH The hydroxyl radical then reacts with nitrogen dioxide and oxidises it to nitrate ions. The superoxide ion reacts with nitrogen monoxide to form nitrate ions. NO2 + OH H+ + NO3- NO + O2- NO3- These nitrates are then either washed away or absorbed by the blocks to form stable compounds. The crystals also catalyse the reaction because the surface of the block holds together the reactants. This increases the concentration of the reactants. Figure 2: NOX removal by titanium oxide crystals.x Three-way Catalytic Converters A three-way catalytic converter oxidises carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduces the levels of nitrogen oxides. It does this by creating the right conditions for reactions of these emissions to occur. The air to fuel ratio must be carefully controlled as oxygen is needed for the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. ...read more.


i http://www.nutramed.com/environment/carsepa.htm; Stephen Gislason MD; Date looked at: 30th April 2007 ii http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/air/1158715/1159675/?lang=_e; Jason Dinsdale 2007; Date looked at: 25th April 2007 iii Nitrogen Oxides Fact sheet; Environmental Defense; December 2002; http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/2551_FactSheet_NOx.pdf; Date looked at: 25th April 2007 iv http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/air/1158715/1163071/?lang=_e; Jason Dinsdale; Date looked at: 30th April 2007 v http://www.epa.gov/air/particlepollution/health.html; March 2007; Date looked at: 3rd May 2007 vi Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 7; Article 2: Emission Control; Brian Harrison; September 2000 vii Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 3; Article 1: Paved with Titanium; Stephanie Makins; 2002 viii Salters Advanced Chemistry; Chemical Ideas (Second Edition); Page 240; Heinemann 2000 ix http://vpd.ms.northwestern.edu/memberpages.asp?url=members/feng/Research%20Background.htm; Date looked at: 30th April 2007 x Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 5; Article 1: Paved with Titanium; Stephanie Makins; 2002 xi Salters Advanced Chemistry; Chemical Storylines (Second Edition); Page 37; Heinemann 2000 xii Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 8; Article 2: Emission Control; Brian Harrison; September 2000 xiii Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 8-9; Article 2: Emission Control; Brian Harrison; September 2000 xiv Chemistry (Salters) Open-book Paper, Page 9; Article 2: Emission Control; Brian Harrison; September 2000 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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