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Malaria Issue Report

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Introduction

The Issue/Problem The issue I am going to be talking about in my report is about how to prevent the transmission of malaria around the world. Malaria is a mosquito-borne, climate sensitive disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium.[1] Malaria is caused by one of four species of the protoctist Plasmodium[2]. The Plasmodium parasites multiply in red blood cells; this can cause symptoms such as fever and headache, but in severe cases the disease can lead to death. Transmission Malaria is transmitted through the bite of an infected female (Anopheles) mosquito; although it can be transmitted through contact of infected blood but this is very uncommon.[3] The cycle of malaria is an Anopheles mosquito bites an infected person; a small amount of infected blood is taken. The plasmodium parasite grows and matures in the mosquito's gut for approximately a week before it then travels to the mosquito's salivary glands. When the mosquito next bites someone, these parasites mix with the saliva, are then injected with the bite, and the transmission of malaria is complete.[4] Cycle in the Body Once in the blood, the parasites travel to the liver and enter liver cells, to grow and multiply. ...read more.

Middle

The solutions include: Nets The economic problem with nets is that malaria is mainly affecting LEDCs; therefore people are unable to afford the cost of buying drugs nets as they can be expensive. Environmental issues with mosquito nets are that mosquitos are possibly starting to get immune to the chemical Deltamethrin which is used in the bed nets; this means that they are no longer being useful by stopping the female mosquito from biting and killing harmless insects instead. The social implications of using nets are that nets prevent people being bitten by malaria carrying mosquitos, this means that less access to health services are needed; therefore less time is lost from work because of malaria. Medicines Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) are therapies made by combining an extract of the Artemisia plant and another medicine. They are the most effective and advance treatments for malaria, and are strongly recommended for the treatment of malaria in Africa.[14] The implication to this method is that they are highly expensive to produce and take around 15 years to research and develop. And seeing as malaria mainly affects LEDCs it wouldn?t be much use to them, as they will not be able to afford to buy them. ...read more.

Conclusion

http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-transmission.html 4. http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-transmission.html http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-transmission.html http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/ 5. http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=malaria+deaths&um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=TSxtJcmKrN5EXM:&imgrefurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7366301.stm&docid=ZYleM7uoq_kq6M&imgurl=http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44599000/gif/_44599898_malaria_map466-.gif&w=466&h=300&ei=ZEAZT63tJ6OQ4gTFzcXdDQ&zoom=1&biw=1440&bih=695&iact=rc&dur=421&sig=100912372787493507143&page=1&tbnh=139&tbnw=216&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=106&ty=110 6. Richard Fosbery, 1997, Human Health and Disease, page 52, The Press Syndicate of The University of Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-42159-4 7. http://www.mosquitonets.co.uk/ http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria?gclid=CNjHo42w3q0CFQMntAodAjstoA#preventing-malaria 8. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14560771 http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria?gclid=CNjHo42w3q0CFQMntAodAjstoA#preventing-malaria 9. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/9/1/117 10. http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria?gclid=CNjHo42w3q0CFQMntAodAjstoA#preventing-malaria 11. http://www.nathnac.org/pro/factsheets/malariaproph.htm 12. http://www.malariasite.com/malaria/rdts.htm 13. http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/mom/quinine/Quinine.htm 14. http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria#preventing-malaria 15. http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria#preventing-malaria 16. http://www.malariapolicycenter.org/index.php/resources/solutions http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-16253364 http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria#preventing-malaria 17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-16253364 Evaluation of Information Sources http://malarianomore.org.uk/malaria?gclid=CNjHo42w3q0CFQMntAodAjstoA#preventing-malaria This website I used for my research into malaria was very good, it covered all the topics I needed for the solutions to the issue, such as, the different methods of malaria prevention. It also explained the success rate and the statistic I needed for my report. I would say that this website is reliable because, when I used other websites the information was giving me similar results. Some of the similarities related to the explanation about the nets and how they are the first line of defence to stopping malaria transmitting. This shows that the information must have been reliable; otherwise several websites wouldn?t be stating the same. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-16253364 This article I used from BBC news was particularity informative. It had a very good information on current malaria vaccines, especially the vaccine that the University of Oxford are researching into and that they are about to do human safety trials. The good thing about this resource is that it had arguments for and against the vaccine. ...read more.

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