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Mendels Inheritance Experiment. A class practical was carried out on purple fruit maize cobs and yellow fruit maze cobs where the individual kernels (fruits) were able to be identified

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Introduction

Mendel's Inheritance Gregor Mendel, who is known as the father of modern genetics; Gregor Mendel carried out most of his work at a monastery where he spent most of his time to study variation in plants during this work he conducted a study in the monastery's garden, Mendel cultivated and tested around 29,000 pea plants. This study carried out on 29,000 pea plants showed that one in four pea plants had purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one out of four were purebred dominant; his experiments led him to make two generalizations which came to be the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment which later became known as Mendel's laws of inheritance. Gregor Mendel's work studied and researched Monohybrid inheritance, Monohybrid inheritance is the inheritance of a single characteristic, the different forms of the characteristic are usually controlled by different alleles of the same gene; for example a monohybrid cross between two pure breeding plants (homozygous for their respective traits), one with yellow seeds (the dominant trait) and one with green seeds (the recessive trait), would be expected to produce an F1 (first) generation with only yellow seeds because the allele for yellow seeds is dominant to that of green, a monohybrid cross compares only one trait (hence the word mono meaning 1). ...read more.

Middle

is cross-pollinated with a true-breeding plant with yellow pod colour (gg) and green seeds (yy), the resulting offspring will all be heterozygous for green pod colour and yellow seeds (GgYy). A class practical was carried out on purple fruit maize cobs and yellow fruit maze cobs where the individual kernels (fruits) were able to be identified and counted and the results were then recorded according to the maize's phenotype. Phenotype Of grains Observed (O) Yellow Wrinkled 218 Yellow Smooth 417 Purple Wrinkled 292 Purple Smooth 681 The table to the right shows the observed results gathered from the group's observations of the selected fruit maize cobs... These phenotypes were what the fruit maze cobs consisted of being Yellow Wrinkled, Yellow Smooth, Purple Wrinkled and Purple Smooth. A phenotype is an organism's observable characteristics or traits, Phenotypes result from the organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. This 2nd table below shows the overall results gathered from the group and the calculated chi square test results carried out on the maize cobs... Phenotype Of grains Observed (O) Expected (E) (O - E) (O - E)2 (O - E)2 E Yellow Wrinkled 218 100.5 117.5 13806.25 137.38 Yellow Smooth 417 301.5 115.5 13340.25 44.25 Purple Wrinkled 292 301.5 - 9.5 90.25 0.30 Purple Smooth 681 ...read more.

Conclusion

a certain area where the maize's are being produced has contaminated soil these contaminations of disease will spread to the cobs in that area which will cause mutations within the appearance and final out come of the cob. Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is an exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes which can effect what genetic information is received by the offspring; in most eukaryotes a cell carries two copies of each gene know as an allele, each parent passes on one allele to each offspring. An individual gamete inherits a complete haploid set of alleles on chromosomes that are independently selected from each pair of chromatids which are lined up on the metaphase plate; without recombination all the alleles for those genes linked together on the same chromosome would be inherited together however meiotic recombination allows a more independent selection between the two alleles that occupy the positions of single genes, as recombination shuffles the allele content between homologous chromosomes. Recombination results in a new arrangement of maternal and paternal alleles on the same chromosome; although the same genes appear in the same order the alleles are different, this makes it possible to have any combination of parental alleles in an offspring which results in different genetic material being used which causes variations in appearances for example colour and texture. ...read more.

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