• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Microclimates Research Paper

Extracts from this document...


Microclimates A microclimate is the distinctive climate of a small-scale area, such as a garden, park, valley or part of a city. There are 4 ways in which the landscape can alter the microclimate. These are: 1) upland areas 2) coastal regions 3) forests 4) urban regions Aspect is an important concept in microclimates. It is a distinct feature or element in a problem and the visual percept of a region. East or west aspect may affect rainfall or snow cover. This in turn may affect vegetation, humidity, evaporation rates. URBAN MICROCLIMATE The table below summarises some of the differences in various weather elements in urban areas compared with rural locations. Sunshine duration 5 to 15% less Annual mean temperature 0.5-1.0 �C higher Winter maximum temperatures 1 to 2 �C higher Occurrence of frosts 2 to 3 weeks fewer Relative humidity in winter 2% lower Relative humidity in summer 8 to 10% lower Total precipitation 5 to 10% more Number of rain days 10% more Number of days with snow 14% fewer Cloud cover 5 to 10% more Occurrence of fog in winter 100% more Amount of condensation nuclei 10 times more Marked differences in air temperature are some of the most important contrasts between urban and rural areas shown in the table above. For instance, Chandler (1965) found that, under clear skies and light winds, temperatures in central London during the spring reached a minimum of 11 �C, whereas in the suburbs they dropped to 5 �C. ...read more.


You are no longer walking under a hot, baking sun. It feels sheltered and it may feel slightly more humid. Radiation exchanges in woodland Examples of tree albedos: Scots pine 9%; Oak (summer) 15%, Oak (spring) 12%; Sitka spruce 12%; Norway spruce 12%; Orange trees 32%; Tropical forest 13%. The effects of woodland type Temperature in woodlands * Woodlands are normally cooler in summer and slightly warmer in winter. Moisture in woodlands * Increased output of moisture - In a forest , leaves are continually transpirating moisture into the atmosphere. As winds inside a woodland area are usually light, this moisture is not easily dispersed. * Interception of moisture input - On the other hand, vegetation is continually intercepting moisture, so less of it reaches the forest floor. * The net effect on humidity levels within a woodland is small. * Daytime temperatures within a woodland are cooler than those outside - this makes the relative humidity of the air greater within a forest (even if the forest atmosphere contains the same absolute amount of water vapour as outside it). * Experiments suggest a 5% difference, although much depends on the time of year and weather conditions. The air near the ground cools rapidly and the cooling gradually spreads upward. Since cool air is more dense than warm air, on a night with no wind, gravity will pull the coolest air down. ...read more.


With increasing water body inertia, the water temperature decreases. The daily range of water temperature (difference between maximum and minimum) is reduced and there is a phase shift between air and water temperatures. When the water body is in shadow (for instance a pond in a courtyard), the incoming solar radiation is reduced, with a further reduction in water temperature. The use of water bodies such as ponds, streams and cascades for evaporative cooling is best suited to warm and dry climates. Outdoor evaporative cooling mechanisms can help to provide outdoor comfort and to lower indoor cooling costs by lowering the air temperature surrounding the building. The landscape techniques include the use of pools or ponds, fountains or sprays cascades or falls, drip or mist irrigation and surface or subsurface irrigated areas such as rock and pebbles. The proximity of a site to the sea or other large water bodies also affects the climatic conditions in and around the site. Wind movement from the water body during the day, and towards it at night, is caused by temperature differences of the air close to the surfaces of the soil and water. The relative humidity of air is also affected, since the air coming from a water body is more humid. Such phenomena are stronger close to water bodies, but may also affect the regional climate by creating strong air movement reaching large distances. This is mainly affected by the physical characteristics of the region, such as topography and vegetation. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    As with all components of the heating set being used, the Bunsen burner should be in a suitable central desk position when in use. In addition, the type and strength of the Bunsen flame should be regulated when not in use; a yellow flame should be maintained to provide unintentional burning or scarring.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Epping Forest Coursework

    4 star(s)

    These will have to be controlled. One of the variables that will be controlled is the coordinates of the axis showing the plot of land. Also the area will remain the same (225m2) in both light and dark areas. Same equipment will be used in both areas aswell.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Is there a relationship between the girth of a tree trunk and the percentage ...

    4 star(s)

    So growing on the North aspect of the tree allows them to retain more water than on other aspect of the tree therefore photosynthesise more efficiently, hence the reason there is more percentage cover on the North aspect. The light intensity data also indicates that lichen do not thrive in

  2. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    Both of these methods are likely to have a certain degree of inaccuracy but the imprecision is only expected to be incorrect to the nearest millimetre and will not affect the reliability of my data greatly.

  1. Planning an investigation into salt marsh and sand dune vegetation.

    A large part of the spit was submerged in seawater that destroyed much of the vegetation. The sand dunes had to be replenished with the planting of Marram Grass and other dune plants. Since the 1980's, there has been severe erosion to the west/sea facing side of the spit In

  2. Free essay

    Cloning Reasearch Paper

    The event that made cloning, as a real science for people around the world was the cloning of the first mammal, Dolly the sheep in 1997. This cloning was the most complicated cloning ever made. Dolly was born in 1996 after having been successfully cloned at the Roslin Institute in

  1. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    Hence at one point in time, the numbers of both predator and prey will increase. There will however come a time where the predators will be consuming large numbers of Littorina littoralis, and so their population decreases. Logically, a decrease in food source will be followed by a decrease in predator numbers through intraspecific competition.

  2. Humans and the Galapogas Islands

    The plan is to restore Giant Tortoises to the island. A last member of its kind (Geochelone elephantopus abingdoni), a male tortoise was found alone on his home Galapagos Island Pinta in the early seventies.(Lonesome George). Hopes to find a suitable partner for George have been futile over the years,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work