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Mint and Garlic

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Introduction

Why do they put mint in toothpaste? Would Garlic be better? Aim To investigate the different antibacterial properties of mint and garlic to determine which ones are the most appropriate and will work best in toothpaste. Hypothesis I predict that the mint will be most affective as an antibacterial defence as it is already commonly used in toothpaste and must therefore be better when fighting microorganisms. It also is used in 'Bonjela' and contains menthol, which can act as a local anaesthetic property. Null Hypothesis There will be no significant difference between mint and garlic on their effect in inhibiting bacterial growth. Method Firstly spread E-coli onto agar plates, being careful not to touch it or leave it exposed to the air for a long time. To spread the E-coli use a wire loop, and spread evenly. After using the loop, burn it under a Bunsen burner until glows red in order to kill bacteria. To guarantee safety use aseptic technique. After this has been prepared, weigh out 3g of garlic plant material and 3g or mint plant material, putting them in separate mortars and using a pestle to crush them. Next, add the crushed plant to 10cm3 of ethanol, measured using a pipette, in order for any existing bacteria to be killed. ...read more.

Middle

These results are significant because they show that although there are antibacterial properties in each, the garlic is better at fighting off bacteria. It also questions the motives of using mint in toothpaste and whether it is solely for bacteria fighting purposes or other contributing influences. The results proved my hypothesis to be wrong, as the mint was not the better defence. This is because garlic has strong anti bacterial properties, a chemical contained in it called allicin, that inhibit the growth of disease causing bacteria such as e-coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Garlic also supplements the stimulation of the immune system, by increasing the number of white blood cells and natural killer cells. Evaluation An anomalous result identified when testing garlic was the result displaying 11mm. This is an outlier as it irregular, and is not in trend with the other results from this experiment. This is most likely a random error as there is no other results that show a fault with equipment that may determine it as a systematic error. This result will be treated as an outlier, and when an average is taken will make less of an impact on the accuracy of the data. The data is very accurate as it is precise, and the data is within a small range, of which the error bars show. ...read more.

Conclusion

These results are significant because they show that caffeine directly affects the heart rate. This could be because caffeine stimulates the production of adrenaline, which in turn increases blood pressure as this constricts arteries, and the heart has to pump harder to move blood around the body. Caffeine also increases the level of cyclic Adenosine MonoPhosphate in the heart cells which diffuses through the cell and acts as a "secondary messenger," activating protein kinase and increasing heart rate. The results proved my hypothesis right as it was affected greatly due to a stimulated SA node. Evaluation Although there are no anomalous results identified in the averages of the results, in the actual results themselves it shows that there are quite a few. These outliers are quite regular, and are not in trend with the other results from this experiment. This is most likely a systematic error, as the uncontrollable variable would have a very large effect on the results. However due to there being a strong trend shown in the graph, I have a large amount of confidence in my data as it is also very accurate and precise. I also feel confident in my results as it was repeated three times with averages taken. Certain limitations included the amount of times the experiment could be completed. If there were more daphnia, then a better average could be achieved as the experiment could be carried out more than three times. ...read more.

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