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Mutation and its Consequences - Gene mutations occur when there is change in the sequence of bases, such as when the gene is copied incorrectly.

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Introduction

Asif Khan 12-B1 Mutation and its Consequences Gene mutations occur when there is change in the sequence of bases, such as when the gene is copied incorrectly. This can result in one or more different amino acids depending on how the mutation occurs. There are three ways a mutation could occur: > Substitution o Substitution occurs when the wrong gene is inserted in to base sequence. Original base sequence: AGC TAC GTA CGT This transcribes into: UCG AUG CAU GCA These code into the following amino acids: Serine - Methionine - Histidine - Alanine. If one base were to be substituted, the DNA sequence would then read: AGC TAC GTA AGT. ...read more.

Middle

There are three consequences of a gene mutation. The change in the code caused by the mutation may mean that a different polypeptide, hence a different protein is produced by the gene. When the mutated DNA replicates, the mutation passes onto other cells. Mutations may be lethal. The new amino acid caused the protein to be significantly different to the original so that it does not perform the same function in the organism. Mutations that cause frame shifts are more likely to be lethal than mutations that substitute, because they cause more changes in the sequence. A mutation may have no effect at all. The protein may still function despite the new amino acid because the change does not alter the tertiary structure or the shape of the protein which interacts with other chemicals. ...read more.

Conclusion

Phenylketonuria Codes for an enzyme that converts the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. An example of a lethal metabolic block - phenylalanine and other related substances build up, therefore interfering with brain development in the baby Mutations are normally completely random occurrences in DNA although the rate of mutation can be greatly increased by mutagenic agents. Mutagens may cause DNA molecules to break, or change a small section of DNA chemically. High energy radiation, including X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet light, are mutagens. X-rays and gamma rays can penetrate deep into the body and may cause mutations in any tissue. Chemicals in tobacco tar also causes mutations in the lungs, destroying alveoli, making it hard for the person to breath in enough oxygen. Mustard gas also causes mutations and is very harmful to the body. ...read more.

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