• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Natural rubber is a polymer that is readily synthesised from specific plants

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Open Book Aswani Pillai 6L3 07-05-2006 1) Natural rubber is a polymer that is readily synthesised from specific plants. All the chemical reactions have taken place in the plant, and the rubber is extracted, in the form of latex; a sticky substance. Latex, like synthetic rubber, has polymer chains, produced by means of additional polymerisation, which occurred inside the plant. However, natural rubber cannot be used by itself, to make tyres due to its thermoplastic nature. Thermoplastic means materials melting when reheated, as the polymer chains run by each other, as they are not held in place. Synthetic rubber has no such limitations, as they are manufactured and produced with desired thermoset properties, meaning that they will not melt when reheated. A key difference of natural rubber, to synthetic, is that it is restricted, as it can only come from select countries, but synthetic rubber is manmade. ...read more.

Middle

However, its thermoplastic property is not desirable in tyres. Vulcanised rubber is an upgrade of natural rubber, founded by Charles Goodyear accidentally, as it has an increased strength. By heating sulphur to the polymers, strong covalent bonds are made between polymer chains by sulphur bridges. This is cross-linking and it increases durability and wear of tyre, as the polymer chain movement is limited, as the chains can not slide past each other, due to the covalent links, disabling it to melt in the summer or to become brittle in winter. Therefore, vulcanising rubber improves overall tyre quality as it is harder than natural and also durable. Rubber Properties Butadiene Rubber * Eliminates cracking * Good wear * Low heat build up SBR * Easy to produce * Good wear * Long life span * Low cost Butyl Rubber * Good air maintenance * Good heat resistance 3) Adapted from: SALTERS Open Book Paper, Article 1 'Get tyred with chemistry', Table 2 page 5 Additives Properties Oil * Brittle ...read more.

Conclusion

The benzene in the oil is used to form cumene, by reacting it with propene: C6H6 + C3H6 C6H5CH(CH3)2 Next, the cumene is used to produce peroxide by thermal decomposition: C6H5CH(CH3)2 C14H10O4 This is then decomposed more to give phenol and propanone: C14H10O4 C6H5OH There are many uses of phenol, and these include antiseptic properties and to construct thermosetting electrical equipment. Lastly as the decomposition of tyres produces carbon black, used in ink and paint, but the more preferred applications of carbon black, which is achieved by converting it into activated carbon via acid wash: C(S) + acid wash Activated carbon. Activated carbon is a "highly porous carbonaceous with high surface area" [4b] and adsorbs any gas and able to eradicate any pollutants, due to its sulphur compounds left over from vulcanisation. This is extremely useful in industry, to remove mercury- a toxic metal. Normally, to clean up mercury would be expensive, but nowadays it is cheaper by using the result of tyre decomposition. Activated carbon can also be used as decolourizing liquid. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Crude oil and its value to society.

    For example Decane can be broken into: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 (Decane) H | �CH3CH2CH=CH2 + H3C- C-CH3CH2CH3 (But-1-ene) | CH3 (2-methylpentane) Decane is broken into these two isomers because there is a larger requirement for small chain isomers than larger ones. After the cracking the hot vaporized oil fraction and the catalyst behave as a fluid.

  2. chemistry of renewable resources

    Carbohydrates Most of your energy comes from glucose, broken down by a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm and mitochondria (see Unit 2) of your body's cells. It is broken down in carefully controlled stages - biologist and author Malcolm B.V.

  1. Crude oil and Hydrocarbons.

    A mixture of vaporised fraction and a zeolite catalyst are reacted using slight pressure at 450 oC. Used in petrol this process forms higher amounts of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons. Reforming is a process by which unbranched fractions are converted into cycloalkanes and arenas; uses include pharmaceuticals and drugs.

  2. formation, extraction and separation of the crude oil.

    Than derrick is to hold the drill which is 10m long. The derrick is very powerful so that it can hold the drill and pushed to the ground. A drill has a bit at the end which cuts through the rocks and that needs to be changed regularly because it worn out.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work