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Objective: To produce soap via the saponification reaction of fatty acids.

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Introduction

SAPONIFICATION OBJECTIVE: To produce soap via the saponification reaction of fatty acids. CHEMICAL AND APPARATUS: 0.25 g NaOH 5 ml 95% ethanol 0.25 g fat 50% water / ethanol mixture 20 g of NaCl dilute in 10 ml water 15 drops 4% calcium chloride solution 0.5 g trisodium chloride (Na3PO4) solution RESULT: CONDITIONS ........................... OBSERVATION / EXPLAINATION 1. Soap + 3 ml distilled water .......... - Formation of foam of the soap 2. Mixture from #1+5-10 drops ...... - Cloudy solution with white precipitate calcium chloride. 3. Mixture from #2 + 0.5 g .............. - The solution turns cloudy. trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) ...read more.

Middle

These complexes prevent the Ca2+ and Mg2+ from reacting with soap and forming deposits. QUESTIONS: 1. How soap is able to remove dirt from your skin? Soap are designed to remove dirt, sweat, sebum, and oils from the skin through the action of surfactants. These substances consist of a hydrophobic tail portion, usually a long-chain hydrocarbon, and a hydrophilic polar head group, which is often ionic. A material possessing these characteristics is known as an amphiphile. It tends to dissolve in both aqueous and oil phase and to locate at the oil-water interface. Soap cleans by acting as an agent between water and dirt. ...read more.

Conclusion

To precipitate the soap formed 3. What should the characteristics be a good of a good soap? Good soap is not foam easily when expose to the water or humidity conditions due to the high quality soaps are made of fine oils and easily build rich lather. CONCLUSION: -Soap formed foam when shaken in water. - Soaps are excellent cleansing agents and have good biodegradability. -The tendency for the carboxylate ion of soap to react with Ca+ and Mg+ ions in hard water reduces their general use. Soap does not work in hard water (solution that contains the cation Ca2+ , Mg2+ and Fe3+) and forms insoluble complexes called scum which floats on the surface of water. -Trisodium phosphate solution is function as water softner to prevent soap molecule from reacting with Ca2+ ion and so that cleaning process is not affected. ...read more.

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